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Amino acid sequence data from 57 different enzymes were used to determine the divergence times of the major biological groupings. Deuterostomes and protostomes split about 670 million years ago and plants, animals, and fungi last shared a common ancestor about a billion years ago. With regard to these protein sequences, plants are slightly more similar to(More)
The inhibitory ligand-gated ion channel family of receptors, including the type A gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA(A)) and glycine receptors, mediates inhibitory neurotransmissions in the central nervous system. In this study, GABA receptor (GABR) evolution was explored through comparative genomics using genomes that span divergent lineages. GABA(A)/Gly(More)
The gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA A) receptor plays a major role in inhibitory neurotransmissions. Intronic SNPs and haplotypes in GABRB2, the gene for GABA A receptor b 2 subunit, are associated with schizophrenia and correlated with the expression of two alternatively spliced b 2 isoforms. In the present study, using chimpanzee as an ancestral(More)
The SCZ (schizophrenia)-associated GABA(A) receptor (gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor) beta(2) subunit gene GABRB2 was recently associated with BPD (bipolar disorder). Although weaker than its association with SCZ, significant association of GABRB2 with BPD was found in both German and Chinese, especially for the haplotypes rs1816071-rs187269 and(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in intron 8 of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor beta2 subunit gene (GABRB2) were initially found to be associated with schizophrenia in Chinese. This finding was subjected to cross-validation in this study with Japanese (JP) and German Caucasian (GE) subjects. METHODS Single(More)
OBJECTIVES Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population. In this study, six SNPs in GABRB2 were genotyped for a case-control association study with the cycloid psychosis subtype of SCZ in the German population using two methods for SNP genotyping. DESIGN AND METHODS The SNPs were genotyped by direct DNA(More)
The gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA(A)) receptor plays a major role in inhibitory neurotransmissions. Intronic SNPs and haplotypes in GABRB2, the gene for GABA(A) receptor beta(2) subunit, are associated with schizophrenia and correlated with the expression of two alternatively spliced beta(2) isoforms. In the present study, using chimpanzee as an(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major disorder with complex genetic mechanisms. Earlier, population genetic studies revealed the occurrence of strong positive selection in the GABRB2 gene encoding the beta(2) subunit of GABA(A) receptors, within a segment of 3,551 bp harboring twenty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and containing(More)
BACKGROUND Non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, the gene for beta(2)-subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor, have been associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and quantitatively correlated to mRNA expression and alternative splicing. METHODS AND FINDINGS Expression of the Exon 10 region of GABRB2 from minigene(More)
To complement next-generation sequencing technologies, there is a pressing need for efficient pre-sequencing capture methods with reduced costs and DNA requirement. The Alu family of short interspersed nucleotide elements is the most abundant type of transposable elements in the human genome and a recognized source of genome instability. With over one(More)