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The visual system of an excavator simulator has been developed in this paper for training human operators and evaluating control strategies for heavy-duty hydraulic machines. In such a system, the operator controls a virtual excavator by means of a joystick while experiencing realistic operating feelings through force feedback, graphical displays, and sound(More)
A low-cost excavator simulator has been developed in this paper for training human operators and evaluating control strategies for heavy-duty hydraulic machines. In such a system, the operator controls a virtual excavator by means of a joystick while experiencing realistic operating feelings through force feedback, graphical displays, and sound effects in(More)
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