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Long-term depression (LTD) is an activity-dependent weakening of synaptic efficacy at individual inhibitory synapses, a possible cellular model of learning and memory. Here, we show that the induction of LTD of inhibitory transmission recruits activated calcineurin (CaN) to dephosphorylate type-A GABA receptor (GABA(A)Rs) via the direct binding of CaN(More)
ADAR2 is a nuclear enzyme essential for GluR2 pre-mRNA editing at Q/R site-607, which gates Ca2+ entry through AMPA receptor channels. Here, we show that forebrain ischemia in adult rats selectively reduces expression of ADAR2 enzyme and, hence, disrupts RNA Q/R site editing of GluR2 subunit in vulnerable neurons. Recovery of GluR2 Q/R site editing by(More)
CA1 pyramidal neurons degenerate after transient forebrain ischemia, whereas neurons in other regions of the hippocampus remain intact. Here we show that in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons, forebrain ischemia induces the phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 2A subunit at Ser1232 (phospho-Ser1232). Ser1232 phosphorylation is catalyzed by(More)
CA1 pyramidal neurons degenerate after transient global ischemia, whereas neurons in other regions of the hippocampus remain intact. A step in this selective injury is Ca(2+) and/or Zn(2+) entry through Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor channels; reducing Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptors via expression of Ca(2+)-impermeable GluR2(R) channels or activation(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a robust inflammatory response and the extravasation of leukocytes into the injured tissue. To further knowledge of the functions of neuroinflammation in SCI in mice, we depleted the early arriving neutrophils using an anti-Ly6G/Gr-1 antibody. Complete blood counts revealed that neutrophils increased approximately 3-fold(More)
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), a tumor necrosis factor family protein essential for B cell development, was previously shown to be expressed at an elevated level in the CNS of multiple sclerosis patients. Although it may be involved in CNS diseases, its exact functions in CNS remain unknown. We hypothesize that BLyS may be a negative regulator for neuronal(More)
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is known to play a critical role in liver immunity. However, the role of IL-22 in HCV-associated liver fibrosis is poorly understood. In this study, patients with HCV infection disclosed significant increases in peripheral numbers of IL-22-producing cells as well as in IL-22 plasma levels. In the liver, the increased intrahepatic(More)
In this paper, multi-layer graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is proposed as an emerging interconnect solution, which can be integrated with GNR devices to establish a monolithic GNR circuit. Both interconnect resistance and gate capacitance in this circuit are significantly reduced, leading to an RC delay improvement up to 60%. Since the interconnect performance(More)
AIMS Recently, ETS-related gene (ERG) gene rearrangements, phosphatase tensin homologue (PTEN) deletions and serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) overexpression were investigated as potential markers for molecularly subtyping prostate cancer (PCA). However, their incidence and co-association in castration-resistant PCA (CRPC) has not been(More)
BACKGROUND ERG (ETS regulated gene) protein expression has been shown to reflect ERG genomic rearrangements in prostate cancer (PCA). However, ERG protein expression prognostic value has not been yet investigated. DESIGN ERG protein expression was investigated in a cohort of 312 men with PCA diagnosed in transurethral resection of the prostate. RESULTS(More)