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Abnormal smooth-muscle contractility may be a major cause of disease states such as hypertension, and a smooth-muscle relaxant that modulates this process would be useful therapeutically. Smooth-muscle contraction is regulated by the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and by the Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments: the former activates myosin light-chain kinase and(More)
Prostanoids are the cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid and include prostaglandin (PG) D(2), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), PGI(2), and thromboxne A(2). They are synthesized and released upon cell stimulation and act on cells in the vicinity of their synthesis to exert their actions. Receptors mediating the actions of prostanoids were recently identified(More)
The small GTPase Rho induces the formation of actin stress fibres and mediates the formation of diverse actin structures. However, it remains unclear how Rho regulates its effectors to elicit such functions. Here we show that GTP-bound Rho activates its effector mDia1 by disrupting mDia1's intramolecular interactions. Active mDia1 induces the formation of(More)
A critical role for the small GTPase Rho and one of its targets, p160ROCK (a Rho-associated coiled coil-forming protein kinase), in neurite remodeling was examined in neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. Using wild-type and a dominant-negative form of p160ROCK and a p160ROCK-specific inhibitor, Y-27632, we show here that p160ROCK activation is necessary and(More)
The actin cytoskeleton undergoes extensive remodeling during cell morphogenesis and motility. The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho regulates such remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms of this regulation remain unclear. Cofilin exhibits actin-depolymerizing activity that is inhibited as a result of its phosphorylation by LIM-kinase. Cofilin was(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) E(2) exerts its actions by acting on a group of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are four GPCRs responding to PGE(2) designated subtypes EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 and multiple splicing isoforms of the subtype EP3. The EP subtypes exhibit differences in signal transduction, tissue localization, and regulation of expression. This(More)
The transition of cell-matrix adhesions from the initial punctate focal complexes into the mature elongated form, known as focal contacts, requires GTPase Rho activity. In particular, activation of myosin II-driven contractility by a Rho target known as Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) was shown to be essential for focal contact formation. To dissect the(More)
Y-27632 [(+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide++ + dihydrochloride] is widely used as a specific inhibitor of the Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase (ROCK) family of protein kinases. This study examined the inhibition mechanism and profile of actions of Y-27632 and a related compound, Y-30141(More)
In cardiac muscle, where Ca2+ influx across the sarcolemma is essential for contraction, the dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive L-type calcium channel represents the major entry pathway of extracellular Ca2+. We have previously elucidated the primary structure of the rabbit skeletal muscle DHP receptor by cloning and sequencing the complementary DNA. An(More)