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The successful recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as a danger signal is crucial for plants to fend off numerous potential pathogenic microbes. The signal is relayed through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades to activate defenses. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2 can interact with(More)
In plants, innate immune responses are initiated by plasma membrane-located pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon recognition of elicitors, including exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Arabidopsis thaliana produces more than 1000 secreted peptide candidates, but it has(More)
Two layers of plant immune systems are used by plants to defend against phytopathogens. The first layer is pathogen-associate molecular patterns (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI), which is activated by plant cell-surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon perception of microbe general elicitors. The second layer is effector-triggered immunity (ETI),(More)
Plant cell walls undergo dynamic structural and chemical changes during plant development and growth. Floral organ abscission and lateral root emergence are both accompanied by cell-wall remodeling, which involves the INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA)-derived peptide and its receptors, HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2). Plant cell walls also act(More)
Phytopathogens invade into plant apoplast and proliferate by assimilating nutrition from plant cells. Plants depend on sophisticated defensive strategies to resist this invasion. Therefore, pathogenic disease and plant disease resistance are two opposite phases. Fascinating molecular mechanisms uncovered that interactions between plant and pathogen are(More)
Plant pathogens usually promote pathogenesis by secreting effector proteins into host plant cells. One of the secreted effectors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causative agent of halo-blight disease in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), HopF1, activates effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in a bean cultivar containing R1 resistance gene, but(More)
Oidium heveae, an obligate biotrophic pathogen of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis), causes significant yield losses of rubber worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between O. heveae and rubber trees remain largely unknown. In this study, we isolated an O. heveae strain, named HN1106, from cultivated H. brasiliensis in(More)
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