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Dual effect of sodium ions: The activation of G-protein-coupled receptors depends on the presence of water molecules inside the receptor and also on allosteric interactions. The binding of sodium ions to the allosteric site of the μ opioid receptor was studied by microsecond molecular dynamics simulations and their seemingly contradictory roles in(More)
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a cell surface regulator that accelerates the dissociation of C3/C5 convertases and thereby prevents the amplification of complement activation on self cells. In the context of transplantation, DAF has been thought to primarily regulate antibody-mediated allograft injury, which is in part serum complement-dependent. Based(More)
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an important class of functional food, are commonly produced from lactose using β-galactosidase. In the present study, β-galactosidase (LacS) from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was cloned and site-directed mutagenesis was performed to obtain two mutants, F359Q and F441Y. All of the wild-type enzyme and mutants were expressed in(More)
Cell wall invertases (cwINVs), with a high affinity for the cell wall, are fundamental enzymes in the control of plant growth, development, and carbon partitioning. Most interestingly, defective cwINVs have been described in several plant species. Their highly attenuated sucrose (Suc)-hydrolyzing capacity is due to the absence of aspartate-239 (Asp-239) and(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator which activates G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors and thus evokes a variety of cell and tissue responses including lymphocyte trafficking, endothelial development, integrity, and maturation. We performed five all-atom 700 ns molecular dynamics simulations of the sphingosine(More)
Recent crystal structures of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have revealed ordered internal water molecules, raising questions about the functional role of those waters for receptor activation that could not be answered by the static structures. Here, we used molecular dynamics simulations to monitor--at atomic and high temporal(More)
Glycoside hydrolases of families 32 (GH32) and 68 (GH68) belong to clan GH-J, containing hydrolytic enzymes (sucrose/fructans as donor substrates) and fructosyltransferases (sucrose/fructans as donor and acceptor substrates). In GH32 members, some of the sugar substrates can also function as inhibitors, this regulatory aspect further adding to the(More)
The question how G-protein-coupled receptors transduce an extracellular signal by a sequence of transmembrane conformational transitions into an intracellular response remains to be solved at molecular detail. Herein, we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal distinct conformational transitions of the adenosine A2A receptor, and we found that the(More)
The Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 (FPR1) is an important chemotaxis receptor involved in various aspects of host defense and inflammatory processes. We constructed a model of FPR1 using as a novel template the chemokine receptor CXCR4 from the same branch of the phylogenetic tree of G-protein-coupled receptors. The previously employed template of rhodopsin(More)
Human purinergic G protein-coupled receptor P2Y1 (P2Y1 R) is activated by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) to induce platelet activation and thereby serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Crystal structures of P2Y1 R revealed that one ligand (MRS2500) binds to the extracellular vestibule of this GPCR, whereas another (BPTU) occupies the surface(More)