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Dual effect of sodium ions: The activation of G-protein-coupled receptors depends on the presence of water molecules inside the receptor and also on allosteric interactions. The binding of sodium ions to the allosteric site of the μ opioid receptor was studied by microsecond molecular dynamics simulations and their seemingly contradictory roles in(More)
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a cell surface regulator that accelerates the dissociation of C3/C5 convertases and thereby prevents the amplification of complement activation on self cells. In the context of transplantation, DAF has been thought to primarily regulate antibody-mediated allograft injury, which is in part serum complement-dependent. Based(More)
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an important class of functional food, are commonly produced from lactose using β-galactosidase. In the present study, β-galactosidase (LacS) from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was cloned and site-directed mutagenesis was performed to obtain two mutants, F359Q and F441Y. All of the wild-type enzyme and mutants were expressed in(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator which activates G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors and thus evokes a variety of cell and tissue responses including lymphocyte trafficking, endothelial development, integrity, and maturation. We performed five all-atom 700 ns molecular dynamics simulations of the sphingosine(More)
Glycoside hydrolases of families 32 (GH32) and 68 (GH68) belong to clan GH-J, containing hydrolytic enzymes (sucrose/fructans as donor substrates) and fructosyltransferases (sucrose/fructans as donor and acceptor substrates). In GH32 members, some of the sugar substrates can also function as inhibitors, this regulatory aspect further adding to the(More)
The question how G-protein-coupled receptors transduce an extracellular signal by a sequence of transmembrane conformational transitions into an intracellular response remains to be solved at molecular detail. Herein, we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal distinct conformational transitions of the adenosine A2A receptor, and we found that the(More)
The LMAN1-MCFD2 (lectin, mannose binding 1/multiple coagulation factor deficiency protein 2) cargo receptor complex transports coagulation factors V (FV) and VIII (FVIII) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). LMAN1 (ERGIC-53) is a hexameric transmembrane protein with a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) on(More)
The Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 (FPR1) is an important chemotaxis receptor involved in various aspects of host defense and inflammatory processes. We constructed a model of FPR1 using as a novel template the chemokine receptor CXCR4 from the same branch of the phylogenetic tree of G-protein-coupled receptors. The previously employed template of rhodopsin(More)
Human purinergic G protein-coupled receptor P2Y1 (P2Y1 R) is activated by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) to induce platelet activation and thereby serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Crystal structures of P2Y1 R revealed that one ligand (MRS2500) binds to the extracellular vestibule of this GPCR, whereas another (BPTU) occupies the surface(More)
Fructans play important roles as reserve carbohydrates and stress protectants in plants, and additionally serve as prebiotics with emerging antioxidant properties. Various fructan types are synthesized by an array of plant fructosyltransferases belonging to family 32 of the glycoside hydrolases (GH32), clustering together with GH68 in Clan-J. Here, the 3D(More)