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A role for the Pax-6 homologue eyeless in adult Drosophila brain development and function is described. eyeless expression is detected in neurons, but not glial cells, of the mushroom bodies, the medullar cortex, the lateral horn, and the pars intercerebralis. Furthermore, severe defects in adult brain structures essential for vision, olfaction, and for the(More)
A better understanding of key molecular changes during transformation of lung epithelial cells could affect strategies to reduce mortality from lung cancer. This study uses an in vitro model to identify key molecular changes that drive cell transformation and the likely clonal outgrowth of preneoplastic lung epithelial cells that occurs in the chronic(More)
One promising approach for early detection of lung cancer is by monitoring gene promoter hypermethylation events in sputum. Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary fruits and vegetables and the micronutrients they contain may reduce risk of lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether diet and multivitamin use influenced the prevalence of gene(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the methylation state of 31 genes in sputum as biomarkers in an expanded nested, case-control study from the Colorado cohort, and to assess the replication of results from the most promising genes in an independent case-control study of asymptomatic patients with stage I lung cancer from New Mexico. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Cases and(More)
Gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising biomarker for predicting lung cancer. Identifying factors that predispose smokers to methylation of multiple gene promoters in the lung could affect strategies for early detection and chemoprevention. This study evaluated the hypothesis that double-strand break (DSB) repair capacity and sequence(More)
The detection of tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation in sputum-derived exfoliated cells predicts early lung cancer. Here, we identified genetic determinants for this epigenetic process and examined their biologic effects on gene regulation. A two-stage approach involving discovery and replication was used to assess the association between promoter(More)
The estimation of genetic ancestry in human populations has important applications in medical genetic studies. Genetic ancestry is used to control for population stratification in genetic association studies, and is used to understand the genetic basis for ethnic differences in disease susceptibility. In this review, we present an overview of genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Trichloroethylene (TCE) is used extensively as an industrial solvent and has been recognized as one of the major environmental pollutants. To date, > 200 cases of TCE-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis among exposed workers have been reported worldwide, and TCE exposure has become one of the critical occupational health issues in Asia. (More)
PURPOSE To address the association between sequence variants within the MGMT (O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) promoter-enhancer region and methylation of MGMT in premalignant lesions from smokers and lung adenocarcinomas, their biological effects on gene regulation, and targeting MGMT for therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Single nucleotide(More)
Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190) and 23% breast (n = 80) tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts(More)