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A tight junction (TJ) protein, claudin-1 (CLDN1), was identified recently as a key factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. Here, we show that another TJ protein, occludin, is also required for HCV entry. Mutational study of CLDN1 revealed that its tight junctional distribution plays an important role in mediating viral entry. Together, these data support(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen that causes serious illness, including acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we have identified 175 proteins from a cell culture supernatant fraction containing the HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) virus, among which fatty(More)
The zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses by eliminating viral mRNAs in the cytoplasm. In previous studies, we demonstrated that ZAP directly binds to the viral mRNAs and recruits the RNA exosome to degrade the target RNA. In this article, we provide evidence that a DEXH box RNA(More)
RATIONALE The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) is now recognized as a blood-borne pathogen, raising an important question about how the virus gets into human bloodstream. The imminent threat of the ZIKV epidemic to the global blood supply also demands novel therapeutics to stop virus transmission though transfusion. OBJECTIVE We intend to characterize(More)
MicroRNA (miRNA), which plays an important role in tumorigenesis, can regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of messenger RNAs and repressing its translation. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are considered to have significant impacts on susceptibility of the role these genetic(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry is a multiple-step process involving a number of host factors and hence represents a promising target for new antiviral drug development. In search of novel inhibitors of HCV infection, we found that a human apolipoprotein E (apoE) peptide, hEP, containing both a receptor binding fragment and a lipid binding fragment(More)
HIV-1 primarily infects activated CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Quiescent CD4+ T cells, however, possess cellular factors that limit HIV-1 infection at different postentry steps of the viral life cycle. Here, we show that the previously reported immune regulator monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) restricts HIV-1 production in CD4+ T(More)
In this article, hollow gold nanospheres (HGN) were prepared by using Co nanoparticles as sacrificial templates and varying the stoichiometric ratio of HAuCl(4) over the reductants. The HGN was then modified on the electrode surface via a 1,6-hexanedithiol linking agent to fabricate a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor. The whole DNA biosensor fabrication(More)
A sandwich-typed near-infrared (NIR) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay was developed with dual-stabilizer-capped CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) as ECL labels and α fetoprotein antigen (AFP) as model protein. The dual-stabilizer-capped NIR CdTe NCs were promising ECL labels because of their NIR ECL emission of 800 nm, low anodic ECL potential of +0.85 V,(More)
BACKGROUND The innate immune responses to virus infection are initiated by either Toll-like receptors (TLR3/7/8/9) or cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-recognizing RNA helicases RIG-I and MDA5. To avoid causing injury to the host, these signaling pathways must be switched off in time by negative regulators. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Through(More)