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The primate striatum contains tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons, the numbers of which are augmented after dopamine depletion. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) strongly modulates the viability and phenotypic expression of dopamine ventral mesencephalic neurons. The effect of GDNF on TH-ir neurons intrinsic to the(More)
Autism is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including qualitative impairments in social interactions and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Abnormal acceleration of brain growth in early childhood, signs of slower growth of neurons, and minicolumn developmental abnormalities suggest multiregional(More)
INTRODUCTION A total of 38 brain cytoarchitectonic subdivisions, representing subcortical and cortical structures, cerebellum, and brainstem, were examined in 4- to 60-year-old subjects diagnosed with autism and control subjects (a) to detect a global pattern of developmental abnormalities and (b) to establish whether the function of developmentally(More)
The long-held belief that degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain was central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and occurred early in the disease process has been questioned recently. In this regard, changes in some cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) markers (e.g. the high affinity trkA receptor) but not others (e.g., cortical choline(More)
Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, which typically emerges in early childhood. Most cases of autism have not been linked to mutations in a specific gene, and the etioloty of the disorder remains to be established [S.S. Moy, J.J. Nadler, T.R. Magnuson, J.N. Crawley, Mouse models of autism spectrum disorders: the challenge for behavioral(More)
We investigated neuronal number and size in the pars compacta of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD, the number of Luxol fast blue (LFB) neurons was reduced by 27% from the mean control value (p=0.04) and the cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase, ChAT-positive) neuron number was reduced by 36% (p=0.03). In addition to(More)
The purposes of this study were to identify differences in patterns of developmental abnormalities between the brains of individuals with autism of unknown etiology and those of individuals with duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-q13 (dup[15]) and autism and to identify alterations that may contribute to seizures and sudden death in the latter. Brains of 9(More)
Several morphometric studies have revealed smaller than normal neurons in the neocortex of autistic subjects. To test the hypothesis that abnormal neuronal growth is a marker of an autism-associated global encephalopathy, neuronal volumes were estimated in 16 brain regions, including various subcortical structures, Ammon's horn, archicortex, cerebellum, and(More)
Growth factors stimulating neurogenesis act through protein tyrosine kinases which are counterbalanced by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs); thus, downregulation of progenitor PTP function might provide a novel strategy for promoting neurogenesis. We tested the hypotheses that the leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) PTP is present in adult dentate(More)