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Lentiviral delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (lenti-GDNF) was tested for its trophic effects upon degenerating nigrostriatal neurons in nonhuman primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD). We injected lenti-GDNF into the striatum and substantia nigra of nonlesioned aged rhesus monkeys or young adult rhesus monkeys treated 1 week prior(More)
Autism is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including qualitative impairments in social interactions and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Abnormal acceleration of brain growth in early childhood, signs of slower growth of neurons, and minicolumn developmental abnormalities suggest multiregional(More)
The primate striatum contains tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons, the numbers of which are augmented after dopamine depletion. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) strongly modulates the viability and phenotypic expression of dopamine ventral mesencephalic neurons. The effect of GDNF on TH-ir neurons intrinsic to the(More)
Galanin is a neuropeptide with multiple inhibitory actions on neurotransmission and memory. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), increased galanin-containing fibers hyperinnervate cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain in association with a decline in cognition. We generated transgenic mice (GAL-tg) that overexpress galanin under the control of the dopamine(More)
Unbiased disector stereologic cell counting was applied to sections from the human substantia nigra that were immunostained by using a monoclonal antibody against the dopamine transporter (DAT). This antibody was found to penetrate the full thickness of the stained section. Quantification of the number of DAT immunostained neurons was performed in human(More)
Although the role of dopamine dysfunction is well established in Parkinson's disease, the effect of nigrostriatal degeneration on motor performance during normal aging is less well understood. In this study, aged rhesus monkeys (25-27 years old) displayed significant impairments relative to young (3-5 years old) cohorts in motor function as assessed on a(More)
We investigated neuronal number and size in the pars compacta of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD, the number of Luxol fast blue (LFB) neurons was reduced by 27% from the mean control value (p=0.04) and the cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase, ChAT-positive) neuron number was reduced by 36% (p=0.03). In addition to(More)
Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is synthesized by two groups of neurons, one in the subparafascicular area at the caudal end of the thalamus and the other in the medial paralemniscal nucleus within the lateral brainstem. The subparafascicular TIP39 neurons project to a number of brain regions involved in emotional responses, and these(More)
INTRODUCTION A total of 38 brain cytoarchitectonic subdivisions, representing subcortical and cortical structures, cerebellum, and brainstem, were examined in 4- to 60-year-old subjects diagnosed with autism and control subjects (a) to detect a global pattern of developmental abnormalities and (b) to establish whether the function of developmentally(More)
The long-held belief that degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain was central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and occurred early in the disease process has been questioned recently. In this regard, changes in some cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) markers (e.g. the high affinity trkA receptor) but not others (e.g., cortical choline(More)