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Sensitivity to dihydropyridines (DHPs) is a distinct characteristic that differentiates L-type Ca2+ channels from T-, N-, and P-type Ca2+ channels. To identify regions necessary for the functional effects of DHPs, chimeric Ca2+ channels were constructed in which portions of motif III or motif IV of a DHP-insensitive brain Ca2+ channel, BI-2, were introduced(More)
Voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels form highly selective pores for Ca2+ ions in the membranes of excitable cells. We investigated the functional role of negatively charged residues, within or near the selectivity region, in ion permeation of a human cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. Glutamates in each of the four repeats, and an aspartate in repeat IV, were(More)
In voltage-gated cation channels, it is thought that residues responsible for ion-selectivity are located within the pore-lining SS1-SS2 segments. In this study, we compared the ion permeation properties of mutant calcium channels in which highly conserved glutamate residues, located at analogous positions in the SS2 regions of all four motifs, were(More)
BACKGROUND The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza emerged in the year 1996 in Asia, and has spread to Europe and Africa recently. At present, effective monitoring and data analysis of H5N1 are not sufficient in Chinese mainland. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS During the period from April of 2004 to August of 2007, we collected 14,472 wild bird samples(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is predominantly synthesized by astrocytes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the role of apoE in astrocyte apoptosis. We demonstrated that apoE protects astrocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Glutamate release from astrocytic cultures is significantly lower from WT mice than from apoE(More)
Several types of structurally homologous high voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-, P- and N-type) have been identified via biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological techniques. Among these channels, the cardiac L-type and the brain BI-2 Ca2+ channel display significantly different biophysical properties. The BI-2 channel exhibits more rapid(More)
Besides mosquitoes, ticks are regarded as the primary source of vector-borne infectious diseases. Indeed, a wide variety of severe infectious human diseases, including those involving viruses, are transmitted by ticks in many parts of the world. To date, there are no published reports on the use of next-generation sequencing for studying viral diversity in(More)
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Oceania's islands and the Americas were characterized by high numbers of cases and the spread of the virus to new areas. To better understand the origin of ZIKV, its epidemic history was reviewed. Although the available records and information are limited, two major genetic lineages of ZIKV were identified(More)
Most cancer cells exhibit a shift in glucose metabolic strategy, displaying increased glycolysis even with adequate oxygen supply. SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) de-SUMOylate substrates including HIF1α and p53,two key regulators in cancer glucose metabolism, to regulate their activity, stability and subcellular localization. However, the role of SENPs in(More)
The current circulating influenza B viruses can be divided into two major phylogenetic lineages: the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We conducted a survey of influenza B viruses in Hubei and Zhejiang provinces during 2009–2010. Out of 341 throat swabs, 18 influenza B viruses were isolated. Five isolates were selected for genetic and phylogenetic analysis.(More)