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Using data collected with thermal imaging technology, we found a major reduction in population estimates of colony size in the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) from 54 million, obtained in 1957 without this technology, to 4 million in 6 major cave colonies in the southwestern United States. The 1957 census was based on human visual(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer development. By cloning and sequencing of a HPV16(+) CaSki cell small RNA library, we isolated 174 miRNAs (including the novel miR-193c) which could be grouped into 46 different miRNA species, with miR-21, miR-24, miR-27a, and miR-205 being most abundant. We chose for further study 10 miRNAs according to(More)
Deep sequencing of small RNAs isolated from human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was used to identify HSV-2 microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during latent infection. This effort resulted in the identification of five distinct HSV-2 miRNA species, two of which, miR-H3/miR-I and miR-H4/miR-II, have been previously reported.(More)
RNA interference-mediated gene silencing has the potential to block gene expression. A synthetic double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) based on a sequence motif of 21 nucleotides from human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6E7 bicistronic RNA was found to be a potent siRNA that suppresses expression of both the E6 and E7 oncogenes in HPV16+ CaSki and SiHa(More)
Cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are the transcriptional products of RNA polymerase II and are regulated by transcriptional factors for their differential expression. The altered expression of miRNAs in many cancer types has been explored as a marker for possible diagnosis and therapy. We report in this study that oncogenic human papillomaviruses(More)
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) encode two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, from a single bicistronic pre-mRNA containing three exons and two introns. Retention of intron 1 in the E6 coding region is essential for production of the full-length E6 oncoprotein. However, splicing of intron 1 is extremely efficient in cervical cancer cells, leading to the(More)
Latency-associated transcript (LAT) sequences regulate herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency and reactivation from sensory neurons. We found a HSV-2 LAT-related microRNA (miRNA) designated miR-I in transfected and infected cells in vitro and in acutely and latently infected ganglia of guinea pigs in vivo. miR-I is also expressed in human sacral dorsal root(More)
A group of conserved hydrophobic residues faces the interior of the coiled-coil-like structure within the N-terminal domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein (CA). It has been suggested that these residues are important for maintaining stable structure and functional activity. To investigate this possibility, we constructed(More)
To improve the developmental potential of somatic cell cloned embryos derived from demecolcine (DC) induced-enucleated nuclear transfer (INT), we modified the INT procedures by transferring donor nuclei into recipient cytoplasts prior to the induced enucleation of the recipient cytoplasts, and we called this modified INT technique as reverse-order and(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is predominantly synthesized by astrocytes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the role of apoE in astrocyte apoptosis. We demonstrated that apoE protects astrocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Glutamate release from astrocytic cultures is significantly lower from WT mice than from apoE(More)