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The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. GA responses are triggered by the degradation of DELLA proteins, which function as repressors in GA signaling pathways. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) have implied that the degradation of DELLA proteins occurred via the(More)
Repeated forced-swim stress (FSS) produced analgesia, immobility and potentiation of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in wild-type C57Bl/6 mice, but not in littermates lacking the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) gene. These results were surprising because kappa agonists are known to produce conditioned place aversion and to suppress cocaine-CPP when(More)
Multi-hop vehicle-to-vehicle communication is useful for supporting many vehicular applications that provide drivers with safety and convenience. Developing multi-hop communication in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) is a challenging problem due to the rapidly changing topology and frequent network disconnections, which cause failure or inefficiency in(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated forced-swim stress-induced behaviors (including analgesia, immobility, and increased drug reward) were mediated by the release of endogenous prodynorphin-derived opioid peptides and subsequent activation of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). We tested the generality of these effects using a different type of(More)
Batch fermentative production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca was investigated using various oxygen supply methods though varying agitation speed. Based on the analysis of three kinetic parameters including specific cell growth rate (micro), specific glucose consumption rate (q(s)) and specific 2,3-butanediol formation rate (q(p)), a two-stage(More)
Hedgehog transduces signal by promoting cell surface expression of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in Drosophila, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that Smo is downregulated by ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis and degradation, and that Hh increases Smo cell surface expression by inhibiting its ubiquitination.(More)
The growing concern about the safety of food and dairy additives and the increasing costs of petroleum-based chemicals have rekindled the interest in the fermentation processes for fumaric acid production. The key problems of the industrial production of microbial fumaric acid are reviewed in this paper. Various strategies, including strain improvement,(More)
Shq1 is a conserved protein required for the biogenesis of eukaryotic H/ACA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), including human telomerase. We report the structure of the Shq1-specific domain alone and in complex with H/ACA RNP proteins Cbf5, Nop10 and Gar1. The Shq1-specific domain adopts a novel helical fold and primarily contacts the PUA domain and the otherwise(More)
Information diffusion in online social networks is affected by the underlying network topology, but it also has the power to change it. Online users are constantly creating new links when exposed to new information sources, and in turn these links are alternating the way information spreads. However, these two highly intertwined stochastic processes,(More)
Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce(More)