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Repeated forced-swim stress (FSS) produced analgesia, immobility and potentiation of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in wild-type C57Bl/6 mice, but not in littermates lacking the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) gene. These results were surprising because kappa agonists are known to produce conditioned place aversion and to suppress cocaine-CPP when(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated forced-swim stress-induced behaviors (including analgesia, immobility, and increased drug reward) were mediated by the release of endogenous prodynorphin-derived opioid peptides and subsequent activation of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). We tested the generality of these effects using a different type of(More)
The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. GA responses are triggered by the degradation of DELLA proteins, which function as repressors in GA signaling pathways. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) have implied that the degradation of DELLA proteins occurred via the(More)
Plant pathogenic microbes have the remarkable ability to manipulate biochemical, physiological, and morphological processes in their host plants. These manipulations are achieved through a diverse array of effector molecules that can either promote infection or trigger defense responses. We describe a general functional genomics approach aimed at(More)
Hedgehog transduces signal by promoting cell surface expression of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in Drosophila, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that Smo is downregulated by ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis and degradation, and that Hh increases Smo cell surface expression by inhibiting its ubiquitination.(More)
Multi-hop vehicle-to-vehicle communication is useful for supporting many vehicular applications that provide drivers with safety and convenience. Developing multi-hop communication in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) is a challenging problem due to the rapidly changing topology and frequent network disconnections, which cause failure or inefficiency in(More)
Norbinaltorphimine (NorBNI), guanidinonaltrindole, and atrans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl) piperidine (JDTic) are selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists having very long durations of action in vivo despite binding non-covalently in vitro and having only moderately high affinities. Consistent with this, we found that antagonist treatment(More)
Batch fermentative production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca was investigated using various oxygen supply methods though varying agitation speed. Based on the analysis of three kinetic parameters including specific cell growth rate (micro), specific glucose consumption rate (q(s)) and specific 2,3-butanediol formation rate (q(p)), a two-stage(More)
The molecular mechanisms mediating stress-induced dysphoria in humans and conditioned place aversion in rodents are unknown. Here, we show that repeated swim stress caused activation of both kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) coexpressed in GABAergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, cortex, and hippocampus. Sites of(More)
The growing concern about the safety of food and dairy additives and the increasing costs of petroleum-based chemicals have rekindled the interest in the fermentation processes for fumaric acid production. The key problems of the industrial production of microbial fumaric acid are reviewed in this paper. Various strategies, including strain improvement,(More)