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The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. GA responses are triggered by the degradation of DELLA proteins, which function as repressors in GA signaling pathways. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) have implied that the degradation of DELLA proteins occurred via the(More)
Repeated forced-swim stress (FSS) produced analgesia, immobility and potentiation of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in wild-type C57Bl/6 mice, but not in littermates lacking the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) gene. These results were surprising because kappa agonists are known to produce conditioned place aversion and to suppress cocaine-CPP when(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated forced-swim stress-induced behaviors (including analgesia, immobility, and increased drug reward) were mediated by the release of endogenous prodynorphin-derived opioid peptides and subsequent activation of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). We tested the generality of these effects using a different type of(More)
Information diffusion in online social networks is affected by the underlying network topology, but it also has the power to change it. Online users are constantly creating new links when exposed to new information sources, and in turn these links are alternating the way information spreads. However, these two highly intertwined stochastic processes,(More)
Hedgehog transduces signal by promoting cell surface expression of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in Drosophila, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that Smo is downregulated by ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis and degradation, and that Hh increases Smo cell surface expression by inhibiting its ubiquitination.(More)
Multi-hop vehicle-to-vehicle communication is useful for supporting many vehicular applications that provide drivers with safety and convenience. Developing multi-hop communication in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) is a challenging problem due to the rapidly changing topology and frequent network disconnections, which cause failure or inefficiency in(More)
Stress exposure increases the risk of addictive drug use in human and animal models of drug addiction by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Mice subjected to repeated forced swim stress (FSS) before cocaine develop significantly greater conditioned place preference (CPP) for the drug-paired chamber than unstressed mice. Analysis of the dose(More)
The molecular mechanisms mediating stress-induced dysphoria in humans and conditioned place aversion in rodents are unknown. Here, we show that repeated swim stress caused activation of both kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) coexpressed in GABAergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, cortex, and hippocampus. Sites of(More)
Tinnitus, the perception of phantom sound, is often a debilitating condition that affects many millions of people. Little is known, however, about the molecules that participate in the induction of tinnitus. In brain slices containing the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we reveal a tinnitus-specific increase in the spontaneous firing rate of principal neurons(More)
Real-time multimedia transport has stringent QoS requirements, such as bandwidth, delay, jitter, and loss ratio. Wireless sensor networks are useful for streaming multimedia data in infrastructure-free and hazardous environments. However, these networks are composed of nodes with constrained bandwidth and energy. In QoS routing for wired networks, multipath(More)