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In the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into single-stranded DNA, triggering ATR-dependent checkpoint signalling and DSB repair by homologous recombination. Previous work has implicated the MRE11 complex in such DSB-processing events. Here, we show that the human CtIP (RBBP8) protein confers resistance to(More)
BRCA1 (Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1) possesses an N-terminal Ring domain and tandem C-terminal BRCT motifs. While the Ring domain has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, the BRCA1 BRCT domains specifically recognize phospho-serine motifs. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1 Ring domain catalyzes CtIP ubiquitination in a manner that depends on a(More)
CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent suppressors, playing important roles in autoimmunity and transplantation tolerance. Understanding the signals necessary for the generation and expansion of Tregs is important for clinical cellular therapy, but only limited progress has been made. Recent reports suggest a role for TGF-beta in the generation(More)
Adenoviral vectors are highly efficient for transferring genes to islets. However, the inflammatory and immune responses stimulated by adenovirus may be detrimental to islet survival. Given the role of chemokines and their receptors in inflammation, we analyzed their expression in isolated murine islets, in a murine beta cell line and in syngeneic islet(More)
FTY720 is a sphingosine-derived immunosuppressant. Phosphorylated FTY720 promotes T cell homing from spleen and peripheral blood to LNs by acting as an agonist for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. Here we demonstrate that FTY720 enhances the activity of the sphingosine transporter Abcb1 (Mdr1) and the leukotriene C(4) transporter Abcc1 (Mrp1). Both(More)
Transplantation of allogeneic grafts presents several challenges to the innate and adaptive immune systems including chemokine leukocyte recruitment, activation, and effector function. We defined the chemokines and receptors induced by the transplant procedure/ischemia injury, alloantigen and gene transfer vector administration in murine cardiac grafts. E1,(More)
CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are potent suppressors, and play important roles in autoimmunity and transplantation. Recent reports suggest that CD4+ CD25+ Treg are not a homogeneous cell population, but the differences in phenotype, function, and mechanisms among different subsets are unknown. Here, we demonstrate CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells can be divided(More)
BACKGROUND Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors currently show promise for islet gene therapy. In the presence of complementing AAV2 Rep proteins, AAV2 genomes can be packaged with other serotype capsids to assemble infectious virions. During transduction, the ssDNA to dsDNA conversion is one of the major rate-limiting steps that contribute to(More)
Early islet cell loss is a significant problem in clinical islet cell transplantation. Diverse stress stimuli induce innate immune responses in islets that contribute to beta-cell dysfunction, inflammation, and loss. Here, we show that cytokine-stimulated murine islets express multiple inflammatory chemokines that recruit T-cells and thereby impair islet(More)
Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5) has been found to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in malignant neural tumors. In mice heterozygous for chd5 deficiency, the first tumor observed was pathological squamous cell carcinoma. More than 95% of primary laryngeal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, we explored the expression of CHD5(More)