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Conditioned stimuli (CSs) previously associated with heroin are critically involved in activating long-lasting relapse and compulsive drug seeking. This study examined the magnitude of heroin seeking induced by drug-related cues in relation to the total amount of drug exposure during training. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) were trained(More)
Environmental stimuli and conditioned cues associated with heroin can induce drug-seeking behavior, but how heroin lapse interacts with cues is unclear. Rats were trained to nose-poke for i.v. heroin for 14 days and then tested for heroin seeking after withdrawal from heroin self-administration. Heroin seeking induced by cues persisted over several weeks(More)
The role of heroin-related stimuli in motivating the resumption of heroin use is not fully understood. The objective was to characterize the relative importance of drug-related contextual stimuli, discriminative stimuli (DS), or discrete conditioned stimuli (CSs) on drug seeking when rats were reintroduced into the operant context after withdrawal.(More)
Conditioned environmental stimuli are known to be important determinants of drug seeking behavior. c-Fos, the protein product of the protooncogene c-Fos, is expressed in neurons when there are drug-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behaviour. Therefore, its expression could serve as a marker of regional neuronal activation. Using an(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical ablation of select brain areas has been frequently used to alleviate psychological dependence on opiate drugs in certain countries. However, ablative brain surgery was stopped in China in 2004 due to the related ethical controversy and possible side effects. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a less invasive, reversible and adjustable process(More)
We examined the effects of bilateral electric lesion of the habenula (Hb) on the acquisition and maintenance of heroin self-administration. The rats were trained to self-administer heroin (0.05 mg/kg/infusion) under FR1 schedule in daily 4h sessions. A progressive ratio schedule (PR3-4) was used to evaluate the relative motivational value of heroin(More)
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