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Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor(More)
Historically, the neuron has been the conceptual focus for almost all of neuroscience research. In recent years, however, the concept of the neurovascular unit has emerged as a new paradigm for investigating both physiology and pathology in the CNS. This concept proposes that a purely neurocentric focus is not sufficient, and emphasizes that all cell types(More)
The fundamental premise of neuroprotection has historically focused on the prevention of neuronal death. However, despite tremendous advances in the molecular biology of intraneuronal mechanisms and pathways, a clinically effective neuroprotectant does not yet exist. This problem is especially clear for stroke, for which a large number of neuroprotection(More)
The neurovascular unit is an emerging concept that emphasizes homeostatic interactions between endothelium and cerebral parenchyma. Here, we show that cerebral endothelium are not just inert tubes for delivering blood, but they also secrete trophic factors that can be directly neuroprotective. Conditioned media from cerebral endothelial cells broadly(More)
OBJECTIVE Diabetes is an independent risk factor for stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of how diabetes confers that this risk is not fully understood. We hypothesize that secretion of neurotrophic factors by the cerebral endothelium, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is suppressed in diabetes. Consequently, such accrued(More)
After stroke and brain injury, cortical gray matter recovery involves mechanisms of neurovascular matrix remodeling. In white matter, however, the mechanisms of recovery remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that oligodendrocytes secrete matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which accelerates the angiogenic response after white matter injury. In(More)
The glutamate receptor was one of the most intensely investigated targets for neuroprotection. However, numerous clinical trials of glutamate receptor antagonists for the treatment of stroke were unsuccessful. These failures have led to pessimism in the field. But recent advances could provide hope for the future. This minireview looks beyond the(More)
Emerging data suggest that exosomal microRNA (miRNA) may provide potential biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke. However, the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on total versus exosomal miRNA responses in circulating blood remain to be fully defined. Here, we quantified levels of miR-126 in whole serum versus exosomes extracted from serum and compared these(More)
The blood vessel is no longer viewed as passive plumbing for the brain. Increasingly, experimental and clinical findings suggest that cerebral endothelium may possess endocrine and paracrine properties - actively releasing signals into and receiving signals from the neuronal parenchyma. Hence, metabolically perturbed microvessels may contribute to central(More)
Resveratrol may be a powerful way of protecting the brain against a wide variety of stress and injury. Recently, it has been proposed that resveratrol not only reduces brain injury but also promotes recovery after stroke. But the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that resveratrol promotes angiogenesis in cerebral endothelial(More)