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New treatments and new drugs for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection are developed continually, but there are still high mortality rates. The main reason may be that not all cell death pathways induced by AIV were blocked by the current therapies. In this review, drugs for AIV and associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are summarized. The(More)
Genetic and physiological studies have revealed evidences for multiple signaling pathways by which the plastid exerts retrograde control over photosynthesis-associated-nuclear-genes. In this study we have examined the mechanisms of control of transcription by plastid signals, focusing on transcription factors. We have also further addressed the physical(More)
Cadmium (Cd) has been identified as a significant pollutant due to its high solubility in water and soil and high toxicity to plants and animals. Rice, as one of the most important food crops, is grown in soils with variable levels of Cd and therefore, is important to discriminate the Cd tolerance of different rice cultivars to determine their suitability(More)
The external environment affects the metabolic activities of plants, and plastids play an important role in sensing the environmental situation and executing adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Previous studies have indicated that some plastid-signaling deficient mutants have impaired basal thermo-tolerance, drought tolerance, and high-light(More)
Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced(More)
This review provides new insights that tetrapyrrole signals play important roles in nuclear gene expression, chloroplast development and plant’s resistance to environmental stresses. Higher plants contain many tetrapyrroles, including chlorophyll (Chl), heme, siroheme, phytochromobilin and some of their precursors, all of which have important biological(More)
Genetic and physiological studies have revealed evidences for multiple signaling pathways by which the plastid exerts retrograde control over photosynthesis-associated-nuclear-genes (PhANGs). Recently, more and more studies showed that plastid signals affected more cellular processes other than PhANGs repression. Previous reports indicated that the(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate(More)
T he recent paper by Totura and colleagues (1) revealed that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling contributes to a protective innate immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Despite the importance of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) as public health threats, there are currently no(More)