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Genetic and physiological studies have revealed evidences for multiple signaling pathways by which the plastid exerts retrograde control over photosynthesis-associated-nuclear-genes. In this study we have examined the mechanisms of control of transcription by plastid signals, focusing on transcription factors. We have also further addressed the physical(More)
Cadmium (Cd) has been identified as a significant pollutant due to its high solubility in water and soil and high toxicity to plants and animals. Rice, as one of the most important food crops, is grown in soils with variable levels of Cd and therefore, is important to discriminate the Cd tolerance of different rice cultivars to determine their suitability(More)
The aim of this study was to elucidate the upstream signaling mechanism that mediates the fluid shear stress activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Our results indicate that p60src is rapidly activated by fluid(More)
The external environment affects the metabolic activities of plants, and plastids play an important role in sensing the environmental situation and executing adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Previous studies have indicated that some plastid-signaling deficient mutants have impaired basal thermo-tolerance, drought tolerance, and high-light(More)
This review provides new insights that tetrapyrrole signals play important roles in nuclear gene expression, chloroplast development and plant’s resistance to environmental stresses. Higher plants contain many tetrapyrroles, including chlorophyll (Chl), heme, siroheme, phytochromobilin and some of their precursors, all of which have important biological(More)
Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced(More)
Genetic and physiological studies have revealed evidences for multiple signaling pathways by which the plastid exerts retrograde control over photosynthesis-associated-nuclear-genes (PhANGs). Recently, more and more studies showed that plastid signals affected more cellular processes other than PhANGs repression. Previous reports indicated that the(More)
Spheroidin (SPH) is the most highly expressed gene of the entomopoxvirus isolated from Amsacta moorei (AmEPV). The level of expression of poxvirus genes is believed to be governed in large part by the promoter. Poxvirus promoters generally consist of approximately 40 bp which frequently terminate at the 3' end with a translation initiating TAAATG sequence.(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate(More)