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The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers has motivated the exploration of the underutilized millimeter wave (mm-wave) frequency spectrum for future broadband cellular communication networks. There is, however, little knowledge about cellular mm-wave propagation in densely populated indoor and outdoor environments. Obtaining this information is(More)
With the severe spectrum shortage in conventional cellular bands, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation microand picocellular wireless networks. The mmW bands offer orders of magnitude greater spectrum than current cellular allocations and enable very(More)
Wireless data traffic is projected to skyrocket 10 000 fold within the next 20 years. To tackle this incredible increase in wireless data traffic, a first approach is to further improve spectrally efficient systems such as 4G LTE in bands below 6 GHz by using more advanced spectral efficiency techniques. However, the required substantial increase in system(More)
In this paper, we present reflection coefficients and penetration losses for common building materials at 28 GHz for the design and deployment of future millimeter wave mobile communication networks. Reflections from walls and buildings and penetration losses were measured for indoor and outdoor materials, such as tinted glass, clear glass, brick, concrete,(More)
Propagation measurements at 28 GHz were conducted in outdoor urban environments in New York City using four different transmitter locations and 83 receiver locations with distances of up to 500 m. A 400 mega-chip per second channel sounder with steerable 24.5 dBi horn antennas at the transmitter and receiver was used to measure the angular distributions of(More)
This paper compares three candidate large-scale propagation path loss models for use over the entire microwave and millimeter-wave (mmWave) radio spectrum: the alphabeta gamma (ABG) model, the close-in (CI) free-space reference distance model, and the CI model with a frequency-weighted path loss exponent (CIF). Each of these models has been recently studied(More)
Household pesticide exposure during pregnancy has been associated with a more than 2-fold increased risk in infant leukemia, and chlorpyrifos (CPF) is among the most frequently applied insecticides. During early fetal development, liver is a hematopoietic organ with majority of cells being CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (CD34(+)HSC). The in utero injury(More)
Purinergic receptors have been shown to be involved in neuronal development, but the functions of specific subtypes of P2 receptors during neuronal development remain elusive. In this study we investigate the distribution of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in the embryonic rat brain using in situ hybridization. At E15.5, P2X7R mRNA was observed in the ventricular(More)
For the development of new 5G systems to operate in bands up to 100 GHz, there is a need for accurate radio propagation models at these bands that currently are not addressed by existing channel models developed for bands below 6 GHz. This document presents a preliminary overview of 5G channel models for bands up to 100 GHz. These have been derived based on(More)