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Genome plasticity resulting from frequent rearrangement of the bacterial genome is a fascinating but poorly understood phenomenon. First reported in Salmonella typhi, it has been observed only in a small number of Salmonella serovars, although the over 2,500 known Salmonella serovars are all very closely related. To gain insights into this phenomenon and(More)
Tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness is transduced into intracellular stiffness, signaling, and changes in cellular behavior. Integrins and several of their associated focal adhesion proteins have been implicated in sensing ECM stiffness. We investigated how an initial sensing event is translated into intracellular stiffness and a biologically(More)
BACKGROUND Although over 1400 Salmonella serovars cause usually self-limited gastroenteritis in humans, a few, e.g., Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi C, cause typhoid, a potentially fatal systemic infection. It is not known whether the typhoid agents have evolved from a common ancestor (by divergent processes) or acquired similar pathogenic traits(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has a 134-kb island of DNA identified as salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (SPI7), inserted between pheU and 'pheU (truncated), two genes for tRNA(Phe). SPI7 has genes for Vi exopolysaccharide, for type IVB pili, for putative conjugal transfer, and for sopE bacteriophage. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis following digestion(More)
To document genomic changes during long periods of storage, we analyzed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT7, a mutator strain that was previously reported to have higher rates of mutations compared to other serovar Typhimurium strains such as LT2. Upon plating directly from sealed agar stabs that had been stocked at room temperature for up to four(More)
Previously, we reported the phenomenon of genome diversification in Salmonella typhimurium LT7, i.e., individual strains derived from LT7 kept changing the genome structure by inversions, translocations, duplications, and mutations. To elucidate the genetic basis, we sequenced selected genes of the mismatch repair (MMR) system for correlations between MMR(More)
Many bacteria can deliver pathogenic proteins (effectors) through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to eukaryotic cytoplasm, causing host diseases. The inherent property, such as sequence diversity and global scattering throughout the whole genome, makes it a big challenge to effectively identify the full set of T4SS effectors. Therefore, an effective(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Agona is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing serious human illness worldwide, but knowledge about its genetics and evolution, especially regarding the genomic events that might have contributed to the formation of S. Agona as an important pathogen, is lacking. As a first step toward understanding this pathogen and(More)
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. Several mutations in the skeletal muscle calcium channel α-subunit gene CACNA1S have been documented to be causative for HypoPP, but mutations in other genes have also been(More)
Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial glycoprotein that functions as a thrombin cofactor in the activation of protein C. Recent evidence has revealed that TM has unique effects on cellular proliferation, adhesion, and inflammation. We examined TM expression in the arterial remodeling process with different shear conditions. Quantitative real-time reverse(More)