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Genome plasticity resulting from frequent rearrangement of the bacterial genome is a fascinating but poorly understood phenomenon. First reported in Salmonella typhi, it has been observed only in a small number of Salmonella serovars, although the over 2,500 known Salmonella serovars are all very closely related. To gain insights into this phenomenon and(More)
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. Several mutations in the skeletal muscle calcium channel α-subunit gene CACNA1S have been documented to be causative for HypoPP, but mutations in other genes have also been(More)
BACKGROUND Although over 1400 Salmonella serovars cause usually self-limited gastroenteritis in humans, a few, e.g., Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi C, cause typhoid, a potentially fatal systemic infection. It is not known whether the typhoid agents have evolved from a common ancestor (by divergent processes) or acquired similar pathogenic traits(More)
Genomic rearrangements (duplications and inversions) in enteric bacteria such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and Escherichia coli K12 are frequent (10(-3) to 10(-5)) in culture, but in wild-type strains these genomic rearrangements seldom survive. However, inversions commonly survive in the terminus of replication (TER) region, where(More)
The effects of enterolignans, e.g., enterodiol (END) and particularly its oxidation product, enterolactone (ENL), on prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and menopausal syndrome, have attracted much attention. To date, the main way to obtain END(More)
AIMS Macrophage-related oxidative stress plays an important role in the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis. Recently, dextromethorphan (DXM), a common cough-suppressing ingredient with a high safety profile, was found to inhibit the activation of microglia, the resident macrophage in the nervous system. We investigated whether DXM could reduce(More)
A strategy has been put forward to fabricate PEG-interspersed nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-functionalized QDs by one-step self-assembly using a mixture of self-synthesized NTA-terminated amphiphilic polymer and 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine-N-[Carboxy(Polyethylene Glycol)2000] (DSPE-PEG-COOH). The process was highly reproducible for facile(More)
Methionine enkephalin, the endogenous opioid peptide, has a diversity of effects on the immune system. Although the biological effects of the pentapeptide have been well documented, little is known about the intracellular events involved in the effects of opioids on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected immune cells. In the present investigation, the(More)
Arterial stiffening is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but how arteries stay supple is unknown. Here, we show that apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoE-containing high-density lipoprotein (apoE-HDL) maintain arterial elasticity by suppressing the expression of extracellular matrix genes. ApoE interrupts a mechanically driven feed-forward loop that(More)
In contrast to the accepted pro-proliferative effect of cell-matrix adhesion, the proliferative effect of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion remains unresolved. Here, we studied the effect of N-cadherin on cell proliferation in the vasculature. We show that N-cadherin is induced in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in response to vascular injury, an in vivo(More)