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We identified the sequence-specific starting positions of consecutive miscalls in the mapping of reads obtained from the Illumina Genome Analyser (GA). Detailed analysis of the miscall pattern indicated that the underlying mechanism involves sequence-specific interference of the base elongation process during sequencing. The two major sequence patterns that(More)
Heat-stable nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) is one of the main nucleoid proteins expressed in exponentially growing Escherichia coli cells. In addition to a role in nucleoid organization, H-NS functions as a pleiotropic regulator of gene expression. The genome-wide distribution of H-NS, compared with the distribution of RNA polymerase and(More)
We developed a modified ChIP-chip method, designated ChAP-chip (Chromatin Affinity Precipitation coupled with tiling chip). The binding sites of Bacillus subtilis Spo0J determined using this technique were consistent with previous findings. A DNA replication initiator protein, DnaA, formed stable complexes at eight intergenic regions on the B. subtilis(More)
AbrB is a global transcriptional regulator of Bacillus subtilis that represses the expression of many genes during exponential growth. Here, we demonstrate that AbrB and its homolog Abh bind to hundreds of sites throughout the entire B. subtilis genome during exponential growth. Comparison of regional binding of AbrB and Abh in wild-type, ΔabrB and Δabh(More)
The Hha and YdgT proteins are suggested to modulate the expression of horizontally acquired genes by interacting with H-NS and StpA, which play central roles in the transcriptional silencing of such genes. However, it is also possible that Hha/YdgT repress gene expression independently of H-NS/StpA, as we have not fully understood the molecular mechanism(More)
Bacterial chromosome replication is initiated by binding of DnaA to a DnaA-box cluster (DBC) within the replication origin (oriC). In Bacillus subtilis, six additional DBCs are found outside of oriC and some are known to be involved in transcriptional regulation of neighboring genes. A deletion mutant lacking the six DBCs (Δ6) initiated replication early.(More)
Accurate identification of the DNA-binding sites of transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins on the genome is crucial to understanding their molecular interactions with DNA. Here, we describe a new method: Genome Footprinting by high-throughput sequencing (GeF-seq), which combines in vivo DNase I digestion of genomic DNA with ChIP coupled with(More)
Bacteria can acquire new traits through horizontal gene transfer. Inappropriate expression of transferred genes, however, can disrupt the physiology of the host bacteria. To reduce this risk, Escherichia coli expresses the nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS, which preferentially binds to horizontally transferred genes to control their expression. Once(More)
The amino acid sequence of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) α-subunit is well conserved throughout the Eubacteria. Its C-terminal domain (α-CTD) is important for the transcriptional regulation of specific promoters in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, through interactions with transcription factors and/or a DNA element called the "UP element". However,(More)
The two-component regulatory system, involving the histidine sensor kinase DegS and response regulator DegU, plays an important role to control various cell processes in the transition phase of Bacillus subtilis. The degU32 allele in strain 1A95 is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated form of DegU (DegU-P). Growing 1A95 cells elevated the pH(More)
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