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The phytohormone ethylene regulates multiple aspects of plant growth and development and responses to environmental stress. However, the exact role of ethylene in freezing stress remains unclear. Here, we report that ethylene negatively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Freezing tolerance was decreased in ethylene(More)
Several lipid-transfer proteins were reported to modulate the plant response to biotic stress; however, whether lipid-transfer proteins are also involved in abiotic stress remains unknown. This study characterized the function of a lipid-transfer protein, LTP3, during freezing and drought stress. LTP3 was expressed ubiquitously and the LTP3 protein was(More)
Cold stress is a major environmental factor that affects plant growth, development, productivity and distribution. In higher plants, the known major cold signaling pathway is the C-repeat (CRT)-binding factor/dehydration-responsive element (DRE) binding factor (CBF/DREB)-mediated transcriptional regulatory cascade, which is essential for the induction of a(More)
Plant growth homeostasis and defense responses are regulated by BONZAI1 (BON1), an evolutionarily conserved gene. Here, we show that growth regulation by BON1 is mediated through defense responses. BON1 is a negative regulator of a haplotype-specific Resistance (R) gene SNC1. The bon1-1 loss-of-function mutation activates SNC1, leading to constitutive(More)
Cold stress is a major environmental factor that limits plant growth and development. The C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)-dependent cold signaling pathway is extensively studied in Arabidopsis; however, the specific protein kinases involved in this pathway remain elusive. Here we report that OST1 (open stomata 1), a well-known Ser/Thr protein kinase in ABA(More)
Low temperature is one of environmental factors that restrict plant growth homeostasis and plant-pathogen interactions. Recent studies suggest a link between temperature responses and defense responses; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the chilling sensitive 3 (chs3-1) mutant in Arabidopsis was characterized.(More)
How plants adapt to low temperature is not well understood. To identify components involved in low-temperature signaling, we characterized the previously isolated chilling-sensitive2 mutant (chs2) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This mutant grew normally at 22°C but showed phenotypes similar to activation of defense responses when shifted to(More)
Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides worldwide. In green plants, paraquat targets the chloroplast by transferring electrons from photosystem I to molecular oxygen to generate toxic reactive oxygen species, which efficiently induce membrane damage and cell death. A number of paraquat-resistant biotypes of weeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis(More)
In plants, excess reactive oxygen species are toxic molecules induced under environmental stresses, including pathogen invasions and abiotic stresses. Many anti-oxidant defense systems have been reported to require NADPH as an important reducing energy equivalent. However, the sources of NADPH and the molecular mechanisms of maintaining cytoplasmic redox(More)
Various mechanical stresses can induce apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanism by which the number of NP cells is decreased in degenerated IVD is still not elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the mitochondrial pathway is involved in(More)