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Recently, we demonstrated that human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) treated with chloroquine or ammonium chloride had markedly increased antifungal activity against the AIDS-related pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Both of these agents raise the lysosomal pH, which suggested that the increased antifungal activity was a function of alkalinizing the(More)
The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with impaired CD4(+) T cell function, particularly those with AIDS. To identify cryptococcal antigens that could serve as vaccine candidates by stimulating T cell responses, C. neoformans-reactive CD4(+) T cell hybridomas were generated by immunization of C57BL/6 mice(More)
Deactivation of mononuclear phagocytes is critical to limit the inflammatory response but can be detrimental in the face of progressive infection. We compared the effects of the deactivating cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans.(More)
Although T-cell responses are known to be critical for effective host defenses against the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the antigens that stimulate protective responses are poorly characterized but are thought to be comprised, at least in part, of mannoproteins. Recently, we created a panel of murine CD4(+)-T-cell hybridomas that react with C.(More)
Because candidiasis and cryptococcosis are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, the effect of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans on HIV expression in monocytic cells was examined. Stimulation of the latently HIV-infected myelomonocytic cell line OM-10.1 with C. neoformans and C. albicans in the presence of pooled human(More)
Chemokines are a family of low-molecular-weight proinflammatory cytokines that stimulate recruitment of leukocytes. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) are relatively specific chemoattractants for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. Chemokine expression contributes to the presence of different leukocyte(More)
The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is produced predominantly by mononuclear phagocytes and stimulates recruitment into infected tissues of blood monocytes and T cells. These cell types are thought to be critical to host defenses against infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans, a major cause of disease in persons with AIDS and other(More)
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