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BACKGROUND microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in development and are associated with birth defects. Data are scant on the role of miRNAs in birth defects arising from exposure to environmental factors such as alcohol. METHODS In this study, we determined the expression levels of 509 mature miRNAs in fetal mouse brains with or without prenatal(More)
There is a worldwide increasing use of herbs which are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential for herb-drug interactions. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is one of the most commonly used herbal antidepressants. A literature search was performed using Medline (via Pubmed), Biological Abstracts, Cochrane Library,(More)
With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are(More)
Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the(More)
Cholesterol, an essential component of cell membranes, plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and transmembrane communication within and between cellular compartments. In the brain that contains the highest levels of cholesterol in the body, cholesterol traffic occurs between nerve cells and between intracellular organelles in(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic peptide. Here, we show that PACAP recruits Rap1 into caveolin-enriched membrane subdomains in PC12 cells and activates Rap1, nuclear ERK1/2, Elk-1 and CREB in a caveolae-dependent manner. We reveal that GSK3beta is a novel modulator in PACAP signalling. PACAP induces(More)
Triterpenoids have been used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, anticancer, and anticarcinogenic properties. Bardoxolone methyl, the C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) known as CDDO-Me or RTA 402, is one of the derivatives of synthetic(More)
Retinal development occurs through the sequential but overlapping generation of six types of neuronal cells and one glial cell type. Of these, rod and cone photoreceptors represent the functional unit of light detection and phototransduction and are frequently affected in retinal degenerative diseases. During mouse development, the Polycomb group protein(More)
Many herbal medicines are widely used as immuno-modulators in Asian countries. Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) is one of the most commonly used herbs in Asia and preclinical studies have established that the polysaccharide fractions of G. lucidum have potent immuno-modulating effects. However, clinical evidence for this is scanty. The present open-labeled study(More)
Recent studies have been conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture in many neurological disorders. Although the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture has been linked to changes in signaling pathways, accumulating evidence suggest the participation of endogenous biological mediators, such as the neurotrophin (NT) family of proteins,(More)