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Human CYP2C8 is a key member of the CYP2C family and metabolizes more than 60 clinical drugs. A number of active site residues in CYP2C8 have been identified based on homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies. In the structure of CYP2C8, the large active site cavity exhibits a trifurcated topology that approximates a T or Y shape, which is(More)
Pharmacogenetics is the study of how interindividual variations in the DNA sequence of specific genes affect drug response. This article highlights current pharmacogenetic knowledge on important human drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) to understand the large interindividual variability in drug clearance and responses in clinical practice. The human(More)
  • S-F Zhou
  • 2008
1. P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), one of the most clinically important transmembrane transporters in humans, is encoded by the ABCB1/MDR1 gene. Recent insights into the structural features of P-gp/MDR1 enable a re-evaluation of the biochemical evidence on the binding and transport of drugs by P-gp/MDR1. 2. P-gp/MDR1 is found in various human tissues in(More)
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is one of the most investigated CYPs in relation to genetic polymorphism, but accounts for only a small percentage of all hepatic CYPs (approximately 2-4%). There is a large interindividual variation in the enzyme activity of CYP2D6. The enzyme is largely non-inducible and metabolizes approximately 25% of current drugs. Typical(More)
BACKGROUND microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in development and are associated with birth defects. Data are scant on the role of miRNAs in birth defects arising from exposure to environmental factors such as alcohol. METHODS In this study, we determined the expression levels of 509 mature miRNAs in fetal mouse brains with or without prenatal(More)
The placenta is a unique organ that is essential to a healthy and normal pregnancy. A number of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes are expressed at moderate levels in the placenta, and have been proven to have the ability to metabolize certain xenobiotics. Depending on the substrate, this metabolic action may have significant clinical implications on how(More)
Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the most abundant hepatic and intestinal phase I enzyme that metabolizes approximately 50% marketed drugs. The crystal structure of bound and unbound CYP3A4 has been recently constructed, and a small active site and a peripheral binding site are identified. A recent study indicates that CYP3A4 undergoes dramatic(More)
A number of mutations in GATA4 and NKX2.5 have been identified to be causative for a subset of familial congenital heart defects (CHDs) and a small number of sporadic CHDs. In this study, we evaluated common GATA4 and NKX2.5 mutations in 135 Chinese pediatric patients with non-familial congenital heart defects. Two novel mutations in the coding region of(More)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate (MVA), which is a rate-limiting step in the isoprenoid biosynthesis via the MVA pathway. In this study, the full-length cDNA encoding HMGR (designated as SmHMGR2, GenBank accession no. FJ747636) was isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza by rapid amplification(More)
The current 'fixed-dosage strategy' approach to medicine, means there is much inter-individual variation in drug response. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how inter-individual variations in the DNA sequence of specific genes affect drug responses. This article will highlight current pharmacogenetic knowledge on important drug metabolizing enzymes, drug(More)