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BACKGROUND The majority of experimentally verified molecular interaction and biological pathway data are present in the unstructured text of biomedical journal articles where they are inaccessible to computational methods. The Biomolecular interaction network database (BIND) seeks to capture these data in a machine-readable format. We hypothesized that the(More)
Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional(More)
MOTIVATION Many biomedical experiments are carried out by pooling individual biological samples. However, pooling samples can potentially hide biological variance and give false confidence concerning the data significance. In the context of microarray experiments for detecting differentially expressed genes, recent publications have addressed the problem of(More)
MOTIVATION Microarray experiments generate a high data volume. However, often due to financial or experimental considerations, e.g. lack of sample, there is little or no replication of the experiments or hybridizations. These factors combined with the intrinsic variability associated with the measurement of gene expression can result in an unsatisfactory(More)
The combinatorial control of one target by multiple miRNAs brings big challenges to elucidate its precise evolutionary mechanism. Squamosa promoter binding protein-like (SBP) gene family exhibits the different regulatory patterns, in which some members are only regulated by miR156 and others by miR156 and miR529. Here, we explored the different evolutionary(More)
A complete picture of the evolution of miRNA combinatorial regulation requires the synthesis of information on all miRNAs and their targets. MiR156 and miR529 are two combinatorial regulators of squamosa promoter binding protein-like (SBP-box) genes. Previous studies have clarified the evolutionary dynamics of their targets; however, there have been no(More)
Genes in the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding-protein (SBP-box) gene family encode transcriptional regulators and perform a variety of regulatory functions that involved in the developmental and physiological processes of plants. In this study, a comprehensive computational analysis identified 15 candidates of the SBP-box gene family in the castor bean (Ricinus(More)
Squamosa promoter binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that control many important biological functions, including phase transition, inflorescence branching, fruit ripening, and copper homeostasis. Nevertheless, the evolutionary patterns of SBP-box genes and evolutionary forces driving them are still not well(More)
A tumor microenvironment may promote tumor metastasis and progression through the dynamic interplay between neoplastic cells and stromal cells. In this work, the most representative and significant stromal cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages were used as vital component elements and combined with bladder cancer cells to construct a(More)