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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is not only the most abundant isoform in human liver but also metabolizes approximately 60% of the therapeutic drugs. This feature renders CYP3A4 highly susceptible to both reversible and irreversible (mechanism-based) inhibition. The latter is characterized by NADPH-, time- and concentration-dependent enzyme inactivation,(More)
BACKGROUND The Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL) questionnaire is an individualized instrument that measures the impact of diabetes mellitus on quality of life (QOL). With the worldwide increase in the number of Chinese people diagnosed with diabetes, we anticipated that a Chinese-language version of the ADDQoL would be urgently needed.(More)
BACKGROUND The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is widely used as a unidimensional instrument, but factor analyses tended to suggest that it contains two or three factors. Not much is known about the usefulness of the GHQ-12 factors, if they exist, in revealing between-patient differences in clinical states and health-related quality of life.(More)
As little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Asians with anxiety disorders, we assessed HRQoL in Singaporeans with anxiety disorders and identified factors influencing their HRQoL. Outpatients with anxiety disorders (n = 119) attending a hospital psychiatric clinic completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Anxiety(More)
In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that the induction or inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) is one of the major mechanisms for some clinically important pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. Thus, an attempt was made to predict pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions using the pharmacokinetic principles that are used for predicting drug-drug(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-related problems (DRPs) have been shown to prevail in hospitalized patients, and polypharmacy and increasing age have been identified as two important risk factors. OBJECTIVE We investigated the occurrence of DRPs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) amongst hospitalized patients prescribed polypharmacy, and the association of advanced age(More)
BACKGROUND Although multiple language versions of health-related quality of life instruments are often used interchangeably in clinical research, the measurement equivalence of these versions (especially using alphabet vs pictogram-based languages) has rarely been assessed. We therefore investigated the measurement equivalence of English and Chinese(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) ratio with the stated preference data and compare the results obtained between chronic prostatitis (CP) patients and general population (GP). METHODS WTP per QALY was calculated with the subjects' own health-related utility and the WTP value. Two widely used(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to cross-culturally validate Chinese Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for total knee replacement in Singapore. METHODS Chinese WOMAC was translated from the original English version following standard guidelines. Patients were asked to complete(More)
BACKGROUND Indirect cost is an important component in economic evaluations. The variation in the magnitude of indirect costs across studies and countries is substantial and affects the transferability of results across jurisdictions. OBJECTIVE This study explored the factors involved in the variation of reported indirect cost and investigated the(More)