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The detection of intracellular microbial DNA is critical to appropriate innate immune responses; however, knowledge of how such DNA is sensed is limited. Here we identify IFI16, a PYHIN protein, as an intracellular DNA sensor that mediates the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β). IFI16 directly associated with IFN-β-inducing viral DNA motifs. STING, a(More)
Inflammasomes regulate the activity of caspase-1 and the maturation of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. AIM2 has been shown to bind DNA and engage the caspase-1-activating adaptor protein ASC to form a caspase-1-activating inflammasome. Using Aim2-deficient mice, we identify a central role for AIM2 in regulating caspase-1-dependent maturation of(More)
The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is a complex multifactorial process that involves the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. This remodeling process encompasses concentric medial thickening of small arterioles, neomuscularization of previously nonmuscular capillary-like vessels, and structural wall changes in larger pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by depolarization of mitochondrial membranes and the initiation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis are pathological responses to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain. Carnitine metabolism directly supports mitochondrial metabolism by shuttling long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) released in response to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the newborn brain may mediate both protective and pathologic responses. We sought to determine whether pharmacologic increase of NO using an NO donor would reduce neurologic injury resulting from HI in the postnatal day 7 rat. We measured NO levels and CBF in the presence of either a NOS(More)
Recent studies have indicated that, during the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), there is a switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in the pulmonary endothelium. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been elucidated. Endothelin (ET)-1, an endothelial-derived vasoconstrictor peptide, is increased in PH, and has(More)
The blood meals of five mosquito species which are vectors for malaria, J.E. and Filaria were determined by using Microdot ELISA technique, which is a rapid and sensitive method. A total of 4354 freshly fed mosquitoes comprising of Anopheles culicifacies, An stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. vishnui gp. and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were tested. Results of(More)
The essence of successful antimicrobial chemotherapy lies in selective toxicity of the agent towards the pathogen. An ideal antimicrobial agent should kill pathogens effectively with little or no effect on host cells. There is a dearth of antibiotic and antimicrobial therapies due the rapid development of microbial resistance to these agents, as evidenced(More)
OBJECTIVE Methotrexate (MTX) is the drug of choice for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but is effective only in around 60% of treated patients. Bioavailability of MTX may be a major determinant of response status and this may be governed by variations in MTX receptor and transporter genes and genes responsible for polyglutamation and deconjugation. We(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with severe alterations in lung structure and function and is characterized by hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, low lung compliance and widespread capillary leakage. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a known cardiovascular risk factor, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of a number of(More)