Shruthi Ravimohan

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Retroviruses, acting as somatic cell insertional mutagens, have been widely used to identify cancer genes in the haematopoietic system and mammary gland. An insertional mutagen for use in other mouse somatic cells would facilitate the identification of genes involved in tumour formation in a wider variety of tissues. Here we report the ability of the(More)
BACKGROUND Patients co-infected with advanced HIV and tuberculosis are at risk of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and death soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Tuberculosis-associated IRIS has been associated with quicker recovery of cellular immune responses after ART initiation and early(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) predicts clinical outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and is lower in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study tested the hypothesis that initiation of ART during initial treatment of HIV/CM would improve CSF clearance(More)
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) beta and C/EBP sites in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) are crucial for HIV-1 replication in monocyte/macrophages and for the ability of interferon beta (IFN beta) to inhibit ongoing active HIV replication in these cells. This IFN beta-mediated down-regulation involves induction of the truncated, dominant-negative(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between antiretroviral therapy (ART) response and early mortality after ART initiation is unknown. We hypothesized that early mortality is associated with decreased early immunologic response to ART. METHODS We prospectively determined the association between changes in plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and(More)
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β, and C/EBP binding sites in the HIV/SIV-long terminal repeat (LTR) are crucial for regulating transcription and for IFNβ-mediated suppression of virus replication in macrophages, the predominant source of productive virus replication in the brain. We investigated sequence variation within the SIV-LTR C/EBP sites that(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-infected patients with pulmonary TB (pTB) can have worsening of respiratory symptoms as part of TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Thus, reconstitution of immune function on ART could drive incident lung damage in HIV/TB. METHODS We hypothesized that increases in(More)
BACKGROUND The immunopathogenesis of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains unclear. We determined the association between pathogen-specific T-cell responses and development of paradoxical TB-IRIS on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS This study was nested within a prospective cohort study of(More)
AIMS Immune activation, which is characteristic of both tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is associated with impaired drug metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that elevated levels of systemic immune activation among adults with HIV/TB initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) would be associated with impaired clearance of(More)