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Achieving a controlled and reproducible means to direct stem cell differentiation is the single most critical concern scientists have been trying to address since the discovery of stem cells. In this regard, the use of small molecules and RNA interference offers unique advantages by targeting different cellular mechanisms. Our cyclodextrin-modified(More)
of the CNS, while eliminating the potential adverse or variable side-effects from growth factors and viral gene vectors, would be highly benefi cial. [ 8 ] Herein, we report the use of a graphene-based nanomaterial for the design of hybrid nanofi brous scaffolds to guide NSC differentiation into oligodendrocytes (Figure 1). Graphene-based nanomaterials,(More)
The ability of stem cells to differentiate into specialized lineages within a specifi c microenvironment is vital for regenerative medicine. For harnessing the full potential of stem cells for regenerative therapies, it is important to investigate and understand the function of three types of micro-environmental cues—soluble signals, cell–cell interactions,(More)
The development of non-toxic quantum dots and further investigation of their composition-dependent cytotoxicity in a high-throughput manner have been critical challenges for biomedical imaging and gene delivery. Herein, we report a rapid sonochemical synthetic methodology for generating a library of highly biocompatible ZnS-AgInS(2) (ZAIS) quantum dots for(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) for controlling gene expression levels using siRNA or miRNA is emerging as an important tool in stem cell biology. However, the conventional methods used to deliver siRNA into stem cells result in significant cytotoxicity and undesirable side-effects. To this end, we have developed a nanotopography-mediated reverse uptake (NanoRU)(More)
Control of stem cell fate by modulating biophysical cues (e.g., micropatterns, nanopatterns, elasticity and porosity of the substrates) has emerged as an attractive approach in stem cell-based research. Here, we report a method for fabricating combinatorial patterns of graphene oxide (GO) to effectively control the differentiation of human adipose-derived(More)
Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of(More)
The mammalian brain is a phenomenal piece of "organic machinery" that has fascinated scientists and clinicians for centuries. The intricate network of tens of billions of neurons dispersed in a mixture of chemical and biochemical constituents gives rise to thoughts, feelings, memories, and life as we know it. In turn, subtle imbalances or damage to this(More)
Stem cell-based gene therapies, wherein stem cells are genetically engineered to express therapeutic molecules, have shown tremendous potential for cancer applications owing to their innate ability to home to tumors. However, traditional stem cell-based gene therapies are hampered by our current inability to control when the therapeutic genes are actually(More)