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The role of N-type Ca(2+) channels in nociceptive transmission was examined in genetically engineered mice lacking the alpha(1B) subunit of N-type channels and in their heterozygote and wild-type littermates. In alpha(1B)-deficient mice, N-type channel activities in dorsal root ganglion neurons and spinal synaptoneurosomes were eliminated without(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is one of the eight neurodegenerative diseases caused by a tri-nucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion coding polyglutamine (CAG repeat/polyglutamine diseases) and is characterized by late onset autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia and predominant loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Although the causative, small and stable CAG(More)
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that inactivates catecholamines, including levodopa. An amino acid change (Val-108-Met) in the COMT protein has been found to result in a change from high to low enzyme activity. In the present study, we genotyped 121 Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 100 controls. Comparison of the allele(More)
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is widely prevalent in asthmatic patients. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is considered to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the effects of eosinophilic airway inflammation on EIB have been elucidated insufficiently. To examine the relationship between the severity of EIB and eosinophilic(More)
N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is essential for the survival of eukaryotes and the production of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type-1(HIV-1) by the host cell. In this study, we found decreases in the mRNA levels of human NMT isoforms and the NMT activities in the course of HIV-1 infection in the human T-cell line, CEM. Investigating the cytotoxic(More)
To clarify the clinical, neuropathological, and molecular characteristics of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), two unrelated Japanese families with SCA6 were studied. A clinical feature of the two families was late onset "pure" cerebellar ataxia. Pathologically, three SCA6 brains consistently showed Purkinje cell dominant cortical cerebellar(More)
Cocaine is a popular and sometimes deadly drug of abuse. Its mechanisms of action have previously not been linked with receptors localized to presynaptic sites for the major central nervous system amino acid transmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. We demonstrate that, within the dorsolateral septal nucleus of in vitro brain slices from(More)
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. We carried out genomewide linkage analysis in 15 families with autosomal dominant pure cerebellar ataxia (ADPCA). Evidence for linkage to chromosome 19p markers was found in nine families, and combined multipoint analysis refined the candidate region to a(More)
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of the polyglutamine stretch in the MJD gene-encoded protein, ataxin-3. Using a series of deletion constructs expressing ataxin-3 fragments with expanded polyglutamine stretches, we observed aggregate formation and cell death in cultured BHK-21 cells. The(More)
We studied immunoreactivity for calbindin-D 28k (CaBP), an intracellular calcium-binding protein, in the cerebellum of control subjects and of patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) including sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy and familial cortical cerebellar atrophy. In the cerebellum, CaBP immunoreactivity was seen exclusively in the Purkinje(More)