Show-Mei Chuang

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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles (<100 nm in diameter) have been of interest in a wide range of applications, such as in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals because of their low toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that TiO2 nano-particles (nano-TiO2) induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various lines of cultured cells as well as tumorigenesis in(More)
The evidence that nuclear proteins can be degraded by cytosolic proteasomes has received considerable experimental support. However, the presence of proteasome subunits in the nucleus also suggests that protein degradation could occur within this organelle. We determined that Sts1 can target proteasomes to the nucleus and facilitate the degradation of a(More)
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess unique properties that have been exploited in several medical applications. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental safety of AuNPs is imperative for use of these nanomaterials. Here, we describe the impacts of AuNPs in various mammalian cell models using an automatic and dye-free method for(More)
Rad23 and Rpn10 play synergistic roles in the recognition of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome, and loss of both proteins causes growth and proteolytic defects. However, the physiological targets of Rad23 and Rpn10 have not been well defined. We report that rad23Delta rpn10Delta is unable to grow in the presence of translation inhibitors, and this(More)
Lead, a possible human carcinogen, affects signal transduction pathways in many aspects, yet exhibits low mutagenicity in human cells. In this study, we explore whether signaling pathways including the four MAPKs and AKT affect DNA repair and mutagenicity in the exposure of mammalian cells to lead acetate [Pb(II)]. Pb(II) increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2(More)
BACKGROUND Many in vitro studies have revealed that the interference of dye molecules in traditional nanoparticle cytotoxicity assays results in controversial conclusions. The aim of this study is to establish an extensive and systematic method for evaluating biological effects of gold nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines. METHODS We establish the(More)
Surveillance mechanisms that monitor protein synthesis can promote rapid elimination of misfolded nascent proteins. We showed that the translation elongation factor eEF1A and the proteasome subunit Rpt1 play a central role in the translocation of nascent-damaged proteins to the proteasome. We show here that multiubiquitinated proteins, and the(More)
Sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation does not always correlate with its upstream Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MKK1/2) signal cascade in cancer cells, and the mechanism remains elusive. Here we report a novel mechanism by which sustained ERK1/2 activation is established. We demonstrate that Pb(II), a(More)
YWHAZ, also known as 14-3-3zeta, has been reportedly elevated in many human tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) but little is known about its specific contribution to lung cancer malignancy. Through a combined array-based comparative genomic hybridization and expression microarray analysis, we identified YWHAZ as a potential metastasis(More)
Rad51 is an essential component of the homologous recombination repair pathway. Abnormal expression of Rad51 has been reported in various carcinomas. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogen found in the environment, induces cancer in multiple organs. B[a]P has been shown to activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in mammalian cells. The(More)