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Rad23 and Rpn10 play synergistic roles in the recognition of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome, and loss of both proteins causes growth and proteolytic defects. However, the physiological targets of Rad23 and Rpn10 have not been well defined. We report that rad23Delta rpn10Delta is unable to grow in the presence of translation inhibitors, and this(More)
Surveillance mechanisms that monitor protein synthesis can promote rapid elimination of misfolded nascent proteins. We showed that the translation elongation factor eEF1A and the proteasome subunit Rpt1 play a central role in the translocation of nascent-damaged proteins to the proteasome. We show here that multiubiquitinated proteins, and the(More)
BACKGROUND Many in vitro studies have revealed that the interference of dye molecules in traditional nanoparticle cytotoxicity assays results in controversial conclusions. The aim of this study is to establish an extensive and systematic method for evaluating biological effects of gold nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines. METHODS We establish the(More)
The evidence that nuclear proteins can be degraded by cytosolic proteasomes has received considerable experimental support. However, the presence of proteasome subunits in the nucleus also suggests that protein degradation could occur within this organelle. We determined that Sts1 can target proteasomes to the nucleus and facilitate the degradation of a(More)
YWHAZ, also known as 14-3-3zeta, has been reportedly elevated in many human tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) but little is known about its specific contribution to lung cancer malignancy. Through a combined array-based comparative genomic hybridization and expression microarray analysis, we identified YWHAZ as a potential metastasis(More)
In this study, we determined the expression and activation of p38 MAPK in matured porcine oocytes subjected to heat shock (HS). When MII oocytes were heated, only the phosphorylated p38 levels relative to the total p38 levels decreased (P < 0.01) after HS, but no clear relationship with HS treatments was observed in the ERK, JNK and p90(rsk) expressions of(More)
Cinnamaldehyde has been demonstrated to stimulate glutathione production and the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes in HepG2 cells. The mechanism underlying this cinnamaldehyde-mediated gene expression relies on Nrf2 transcriptional activity. Therefore, the molecular signaling events in cinnamaldehyde-mediated detoxifying enzyme expression were(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles (<100 nm in diameter) have been of interest in a wide range of applications, such as in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals because of their low toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that TiO2 nano-particles (nano-TiO2) induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various lines of cultured cells as well as tumorigenesis in(More)
Numerous studies have indicated that inflammatory cytokines play a major role in osteoclastogenesis, leading to the bone resorption that is frequently associated with osteoporosis. D-pinitol, a 3-methoxy analogue of D-chiroinositol, was identified as an active principle in soy foods and legumes. Here we found that D-pinitol markedly inhibited the receptor(More)
Sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation does not always correlate with its upstream Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MKK1/2) signal cascade in cancer cells, and the mechanism remains elusive. Here we report a novel mechanism by which sustained ERK1/2 activation is established. We demonstrate that Pb(II), a(More)