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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that involves the destruction of articular cartilage and eventually leads to disability. Molecules that promote the selective differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chondrocytes may stimulate the repair of damaged cartilage. Using an image-based high-throughput screen, we(More)
Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of cutaneous carcinoma, accounting for 75% of all deaths caused by skin cancers. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a master gene regulating melanocyte development and functions as a "lineage addiction" oncogene in malignant melanoma. We have identified the receptor protein tyrosine kinase(More)
In the course of screening for new small-molecule modulators of cell motility, we discovered that quinocarmycin (also known as quinocarcin) analog DX-52-1 is an inhibitor of epithelial cell migration. While it has been assumed that the main target of DX-52-1 is DNA, we identified and confirmed radixin as the relevant molecular target of DX-52-1 in the cell.(More)
There is considerable interest in the development of stem cell-based strategies for the treatment of a broad range of human diseases, including neurodegenerative, autoimmune, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal diseases. To date, such regenerative approaches have focused largely on the development of cell transplantation therapies using cells derived from(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a growing list of malignancies and are believed to be responsible for cancer initiation, metastasis and relapse following certain therapies, even though they may only represent a small fraction of the cells in a given cancer. Like somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells, CSCs are capable of self-renewal(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an attractive source of cells for disease modeling in vitro and may eventually provide access to cells/tissues for the treatment of many degenerative diseases. However, applications of ESC-derived cell types are largely hindered by the lack of highly efficient methods for lineage-specific differentiation. Using a high-content(More)
Cell motility is a central feature of a range of normal and pathological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, immune cell function, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. The dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton power cell migration. A large number of proteins are known or suspected to play roles in regulating actin dynamics. While there(More)
Potential applications of stem cells in medicine range from their inclusion in disease modeling and drug discovery to cell transplantation and regenerative therapies. However, before this promise can be realized several obstacles must be overcome, including the control of stem cell differentiation, allogeneic rejection and limited cell availability. This(More)
Previously, a small molecule, reversine, was identified that reverses lineage-committed murine myoblasts to a more primitive multipotent state. Here, we show that reversine can increase the plasticity of C2C12 myoblasts at the single-cell level and that reversine-treated cells gain the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes under(More)