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The spreading of oil underneath a sheet of ice is computed using an adaptive level set method for incompressible two-uid ow. Factors such as viscosity, surface tension, and wall adhesion are taken into account in the computations. The results of the computations agree well with previous experiments and theory. In this work, we also present a v ery eecient(More)
Photosystem II (PSII) is a membrane protein complex that performs light-induced electron transfer and oxygen evolution from water. PSII consists of 19 or 20 subunits in its crystal form and binds various cofactors such as chlorophyll a, plastoquinone, carotenoid, and lipids. After initial light excitation, the charge separation produces an electron, which(More)
We present a precise electric-field-temperature phase diagram of an antiferroelectric liquid crystal with a short pitch Sm-Calpha* phase. This was obtained by using a photoelastic modulator. A unique field-induced phase was found inside the Sm-Calpha* phase, which displayed low birefringence. Two tricritical points related to the phase were also observed.(More)
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