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We present a precise electric-field-temperature phase diagram of an antiferroelectric liquid crystal with a short pitch Sm-Calpha* phase. This was obtained by using a photoelastic modulator. A unique field-induced phase was found inside the Sm-Calpha* phase, which displayed low birefringence. Two tricritical points related to the phase were also observed.(More)
Photosystem II (PSII) is a membrane protein complex that performs light-induced electron transfer and oxygen evolution from water. PSII consists of 19 or 20 subunits in its crystal form and binds various cofactors such as chlorophyll a, plastoquinone, carotenoid, and lipids. After initial light excitation, the charge separation produces an electron, which(More)
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