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Identification of muscle synergies associated with gait transition in humans
The results suggest that the CNS low-dimensionally regulate the activation profiles of the specific synergies based on afferent information (spontaneous gait Transition) or by changing only the descending neural input to the muscle synergies (voluntary gait transition) to achieve a gait transitions.
The flexible recruitment of muscle synergies depends on the required force-generating capability.
It is suggested that the CNS selects appropriate muscle synergies and controls their activation patterns based on the force-generating capability of muscles with merging or decomposing descending neural inputs.
Speed-Dependent Modulation of Muscle Activity Based on Muscle Synergies during Treadmill Walking
This work hypothesized that the CNS controls the walking speed by flexibly modulating activation of muscle synergies within one gait cycle and investigated how the activation of Muscle synergies depend on walking speeds using the center of activity (CoA) that indicates thecenter of the distribution of activation timing within onegait cycle.
Action Direction of Muscle Synergies in Three-Dimensional Force Space
This study quantified the mechanical contribution of muscle synergies as considering spatiotemporal correlation between the activation of Muscle synergies and endpoint force fluctuations and provided the spatiotsemporal characteristics of muscle synergy as neural basis.
Region specificity of rectus femoris muscle for force vectors in vivo.
Comparison of muscle synergies for running between different foot strike patterns
The results suggest that the central nervous system controls running by sending a sequence of signals to six muscle synergies, and a change in the foot strike pattern is accomplished by modulating the timing, duration and magnitude of the muscle synergy activity and by selectively activating other muscle synergie or subsets of the Muscle synergies.
Synergistic co-activation in multi-directional postural control in humans.
Lower Local Dynamic Stability and Invariable Orbital Stability in the Activation of Muscle Synergies in Response to Accelerated Walking Speeds
The local dynamic stability and orbital stability of activations of muscle synergies across various walking speeds using maximum Lyapunov exponents and maximum Floquet multipliers revealed that the local dynamic Stability in the activations decreased with accelerated walking speeds, and the orbital stability is sustained across broad walking speeds.
Recruitment of muscle synergies is associated with endpoint force fluctuations during multi-directional isometric contractions
The relationship between the activation of muscle synergies and endpoint force fluctuations in the presence of signal-dependent noise is examined and suggests that muscle synergie statistically calculated from EMG data should be related to the motor output.
Modularity speeds up motor learning by overcoming mechanical bias in musculoskeletal geometry
A simple neural network model of the motor control system that included three intermediate layers representing neurons in the primary motor cortex, spinal interneurons organized into modules and motoneurons controlling upper-arm muscles demonstrated that the modules reduced the effect of the bias in the distribution of muscle pulling directions, which led to a more rapid adaptation to multi-directional force generation.