Shoshana M. Bartell

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The detection of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts over 20 years ago suggested that direct effects of estrogens on both of these cell types are responsible for their beneficial effects on the skeleton, but the role of ERα in osteoblast lineage cells has remained elusive. In addition, estrogen activation of ERα in osteoclasts can only(More)
Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling stimulates bone formation and suppresses adipogenesis. The hallmarks of skeletal involution with age, on the other hand, are decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity. These changes are associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased growth factor production, which activate members of the FOXO family(More)
BACKGROUND Leptin, a cytokine-like protein, plays an important role in the regulation of body weight through inhibition of food intake and stimulation of energy expenditure. Leptin circulates in blood and acts on the brain, which sends downstream signals to regulate body weight. Leptin therapy has been successful in treating leptin deficient obese patients.(More)
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental Gln on growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract, and humoral immune response of broilers. Immediately after hatch 6 replicate pens of 6 chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 (experiment 1) or 5 (experiment 2) dietary treatments for 21 d. On d 4, 7, 14, and 21,(More)
In men, androgens are critical for the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass in both the cortical and cancellous bone compartment. Male mice with targeted deletion of the androgen receptor (AR) in mature osteoblasts or osteocytes have lower cancellous bone mass, but no cortical bone phenotype. We have investigated the possibility that the effects of(More)
Aging or acute loss of estrogens or androgens increases the levels of reactive oxygen species, activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and promotes the phosphorylation of p66(shc), a redox enzyme that amplifies mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and stimulates apoptosis. We report that in mesenchymal progenitor and osteoblastic cell models,(More)
Besides their cell-damaging effects in the setting of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological intracellular signalling by triggering proliferation and survival. FoxO transcription factors counteract ROS generation by upregulating antioxidant enzymes. Here we show that intracellular H2O2 accumulation is a(More)
A decline of the levels and activity of Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a NAD(+) class III histone deacetylase, with age contributes to the development of several diseases including type 2 diabetes, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and cancer. The anti-aging effects of Sirt1 evidently result from the deacetylation of many transcription factors and co-factors including(More)
Both central and peripheral leptin administrations reduce body weight, food intake, and adiposity in ob/ob mice. In this study we compared effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration of leptin on bone metabolism in the appendicular and axial skeleton and adipose tissue gene expression and determined the effects of ICV(More)
Sustained parathyroid hormone (PTH) elevation stimulates bone remodeling (ie, both resorption and formation). The former results from increased RANKL synthesis, but the cause of the latter has not been established. Current hypotheses include release of osteoblastogenic factors from osteoclasts or from the bone matrix during resorption, modulation of the(More)