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BACKGROUND Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has a disproportionate burden of both infectious and chronic diseases compared with other world regions. Current disease estimates for SSA are based on sparse data, but projections indicate increases in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) caused by demographic and epidemiologic transitions. We review the literature on NCDs(More)
1 Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2 Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, 3 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa, 4(More)
BACKGROUND Persistent Escherichia coli asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common among persons with diabetes mellitus, but the duration of colonization and the rates of recolonization are unknown. We estimated the duration of colonization and the rate of recolonization among successively isolated E. coli from diabetic women with ASB and compared the(More)
BACKGROUND The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African(More)
With efforts focused on the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus, less attention has been given to tetanus incidence and mortality among men. Since 2007 voluntary medical male circumcision has been scaled-up in 14 sub-Saharan African countries as an effective intervention to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertension, the leading single cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is a growing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few studies have estimated and compared the burden of hypertension across different SSA populations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of blood pressure data collected through a cohort study in four(More)
BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity are on the rise in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a four-country survey to show the collective burden of these health conditions as they occur currently in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine the differences between urban and rural populations and other socio-economic factors. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND International guidance recommends the scale up of routinely recommended, offered, and delivered health care provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) to increase the proportion of persons who know their HIV status. We compared HIV test uptake under PITC to provider-referral to voluntary counseling and testing (VCT referral) in two(More)
SETTING In sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection pose a serious threat for occupationally acquired TB among health care workers. OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with TB disease among staff of an 1800-bed hospital in Kenya. DESIGN We calculated TB incidence among staff and conducted(More)