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TGF-β1 can regulate osteoblast differentiation not only positively but also negatively. However, the mechanisms of negative regulation are not well understood. We previously established the reproducible model for studying the suppression of osteoblast differentiation by repeated or high dose treatment with TGF-β1, although single low dose TGF-β1 strongly(More)
A strain of Arthrobacter aurescens which secretes a large amount of chondroitinase into a culture broth, was isolated from soil. The chondroitinase was purified 380-fold over culture broth in 24% yield and crystallized. Some properties of the purified enzyme were studied and described: thermal stability (below 45 degrees), pH stability (pH 4.9 to 7.4),(More)
Classic studies of protein structure in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that green lacewing egg stalk silk possesses a rare native cross-beta sheet conformation. We have identified and sequenced the silk genes expressed by adult females of a green lacewing species. The two encoded silk proteins are 109 and 67 kDa in size and rich in serine, glycine and(More)
Male hilarine flies (Diptera: Empididae: Empidinae) present prospective mates with silk-wrapped gifts. The silk is produced by specialised cells located in the foreleg basitarsus of the fly. In this report, we describe 2.3 kbp of the silk gene from a hilarine fly (Hilara spp.) that was identified from highly expressed mRNA extracted from the prothoracic(More)
Collagen is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, where it comprises some 28 diverse molecules that form the extracellular matrix within organisms. In the 1960s, an extracorporeal animal collagen that forms the cocoon of a small group of hymenopteran insects was postulated. Here we categorically demonstrate that the larvae of a sawfly species produce(More)
The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of chondroitinase AC [EC] from Arthrobacter aurescens were determined, and its physicochemical properties were examined. 1. The enzyme has been shown to be a glycoprotein containing mannose, glucose, glucosamine, and glucuronic acid (3:5:4:2). 2. Its molecular wieght was estimated to be 76,000 by gel(More)
Cancer and stem cells share the ability to silence tumor suppressors. We focused on Lefty, which encodes one of the most abundant tumor suppressors in embryonic stem (ES) cells and is not expressed in somatic cancer cells. We found that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) induced demethylation of the Lefty B cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) island and(More)
Aposthonia gurneyi, an Australian webspinner species, is a primitive insect that constructs and lives in a silken tunnel which screens it from the attentions of predators. The insect spins silk threads from many tiny spines on its forelegs to weave a filmy sheet. We found that the webspinner silk fibers have a mean diameter of only 65 nm, an order of(More)
Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of 161 Hafnia alvei isolates from 158 hosts and 3 water column samples collected in Australia revealed that this species consists of two genetically distinct groups. The two groups of H. alvei differed significantly in their genetic structure and host distribution. The taxonomic class of the host but not geographic locality(More)