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The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been sequenced by an international collaboration, The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. Here we report the complete sequence of chromosome 5. This chromosome is 26 megabases long; it is the second largest Arabidopsis chromosome and represents 21% of the sequenced regions of the genome. The sequence of(More)
The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The pilot phase of the Project is focused on a specified 30 megabases (È1%) of the human genome sequence and is organized as an international consortium of computational and laboratory-based scientists working to develop and apply(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative) was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. The sequence of the last three chromosomes and an analysis of the whole genome are(More)
We present an analysis of atmospheric neutrino data from a 33.0 kiloton-year (535-day) exposure of the Super{Kamiokande detector. The data exhibit a zenith angle dependent decit of muon neutrinos which is inconsistent with expectations based on calculations of the atmospheric neutrino ux. Experimental biases and uncertainties in the prediction of neutrino(More)
A search for the relic neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernovae was conducted using 1496 days of data from the Super-Kamiokande detector. This analysis looked for electron-type antineutrinos that had produced a positron with an energy greater than 18 MeV. In the absence of a signal, 90% C.L. upper limits on the total flux were set for several(More)
1. Whole-cell voltage clamp techniques were used to examine the properties of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel currents in single smooth muscle cells enzymatically dissociated from guinea-pig urinary bladder. Potassium currents were blocked with intracellular Cs+. A holding potential of -60 mV was normally applied. 2. When the membrane potential was returned(More)
Malignant tumors are composed of cells with different phenotypic properties and only certain cell subpopulations present metastatic potential. The establishment of cell lines with high or low metastatic potential is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the metastatic process. However, human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines that(More)
Summary The macrolide antibiotics are now well known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate immune responses, we examined the in vitro effects of clarithromycin (CAM), azithromycin (AZM) and midecamycin (MDM) on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, interferon(More)
C-reactive protein (CRP) has several properties that suggest that it may function as a bacterial opsonin. CRP shows binding reactivity with pneumococcal C-polysaccharide, the cell wall carbohydrate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study we have demonstrated protection of mice against serotypes 3 and 4 of S. pneumoniae infection by a single prior(More)
A 69-year-old Japanese women who had been followed up for 10 years as a primary Sjögren's syndrome, is reported. She suddenly developed serological and clinical characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): anti-Sm and anti-dsDNA antibodies followed by nephrotic syndrome and pancytopenia. This case suggests that the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's(More)