Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) mediates cholesterol absorption, and ezetimibe is a potent NPC1L1 inhibitor applicable for medication of hypercholesterolemia. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that consumption of polyphenols correlates with a decreased risk for atherosclerosis due to their antioxidant effect. This activity can hardly be attributable to… (More)
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External world is physical world, where objects, electromagnetic waves, air waves and temperatures exist. In contrast, we feel that objects have colors, sounds, hotness or coldness, smell and taste. These feelings are qualia, which must be virtual realities occurring in mind. The presence of food, enemies, friends and partners are recognized through virtual… (More)
We describe new concepts in sensory system and immunosensory system. Sensory receptors have been assumed to be sensors that send information of outer world to the brain. However, cooling the skin evokes cold sensation, but not temperature. Hence, information may not be sent to the brain. Instead, we have proposed that receptors are comparators, which evoke… (More)
Gut microbiota is an essential factor in the shaping of intestinal immune system development and driving inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We report the effects and microbe-host interactions underlying an intervention using fine powder of eggshell membrane (ESM) against IBD. ESM attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine… (More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)].… (More)
At room temperature of 27degC, core temperature is maintained at 36degC. This indicates that mammals have thermoregulatory system to keep core temperature. On the other hand, when 10% menthol was applied to the skin, core temperature was increased by 1.0-2.0degC from normal level. This suggests that peripheral thermoregulatory system was activated by TRPM8… (More)
There are many patients suffering from neuropathic pain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to be a mediator of neuropathic pain. In addition, neuropatic pain is aggravated by low temperature. However, receptor of ROS and low temperature is unknown. TRPA1 is activated by pain- producing agents such as allyl isothiocyanate or formaldehyde. We… (More)