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Nanotubes are generally prepared from their constituent elements at high temperatures, and thus it is difficult to control their size, shape and electronic states. One useful approach for synthesizing well-defined nanostructures involves the use of building blocks such as metal ions and organic molecules. Here, we show the successful creation of an assembly(More)
We study the spin-1/2 two-leg Heisenberg ladder with four-spin ring exchanges under a magnetic field. We introduce an exact duality transformation which is an extension of the spin-chirality duality developed previously and yields a new self-dual surface in the parameter space. We then determine the magnetic phase diagram using the numerical approaches of(More)
In order to confirm the picture of domain-wall excitations in the hidden an-tiferromagnetic order of the Haldane phase, the structure of the low-lying excitations in the S = 1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain is studied by a quantum Monte Carlo method. It is confirmed that there exists a finite energy gap between the first-and the second-excited states at(More)