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This study addresses computationally how the prefrontal cortical circuit performs operations of multiple items in spatial working memory. The basic idea is that dopamine controls the circuit dynamics for the operations by changing the ratio of the NMDA-channel transmission to the AMPA-channel transmission. There is evidence that this ratio is a function of(More)
The fundamental statistical aspects of population coding of the movement direction in the motor cortex are studied numerically. The activity of neurons in a population is simulated using pseudorandom numbers so that the directional selectivity of the neurons is similar to that observed experimentally. Accuracy of the coding, which is evaluated by the(More)
The study of event-related potentials (ERPs) is capable of elucidating the abnormalities in brain network dynamics relevant to the information-processing deficits in schizophrenia patients. In contrast to P50 and P300 ERPs, however, the results of P100 ERP studies in schizophrenia patients are less consistent. We have previously reported that P100(More)
This article argues how dopamine controls working memory and how the dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is related to schizophrenia. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is the principal part of the working memory system, recurrent excitation is subtly balanced with intracortical inhibition. A potent controller of the dorsolateral prefrontal(More)
The observation of the locomotor and exploratory behaviors of rodents in an open field is one of the most fundamental methods used in the field of behavioral pharmacology. A variety of behaviors can be recorded automatically and can readily generate a multivariate pattern of pharmacological effects. Nevertheless, the optimal ways to characterize observed(More)