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Although the mechanisms by which innate pathogen-recognition receptors enhance adaptive immune responses are increasingly well understood, whether signaling events from distinct classes of receptors affect each other in modulating adaptive immunity remains unclear. We found here that the activation of cytosolic RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) resulted in the(More)
All vertebrates, from jawless fish to mammals, possess adaptive immune systems that can detect and inactivate non-self-antigens through a vast repertoire of antigen receptors. Unlike jawed vertebrates, the hagfish utilizes variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are unrelated to immunoglobulin molecules but are diversified by copy-choice gene conversion(More)
A major function of innate immune receptors is to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and then evoke immune responses appropriate to the nature of the invading pathogen(s). Because innate immune cells express various types of these receptors, distinct combinations of signaling pathways are activated in response to a given pathogen. Although the(More)
The large intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells are exposed to a variety of molecules derived from commensal microbiota that can activate innate receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs). Although the activation of these receptors is known to be critical for homeostasis of the large(More)
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