Learn More
Ca(2+) is known to have important roles in sperm chemotaxis, although the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and modulation of the swimming and chemotactic behavior of spermatozoa has not been elucidated. Using a high-speed Ca(2+) imaging system, we examined the chemotactic behavior and [Ca(2+)](i) in individual ascidian(More)
A hallmark of neurogenesis in the vertebrate brain is the apical-basal nuclear oscillation in polarized neural progenitor cells. Known as interkinetic nuclear migration (INM), these movements are synchronized with the cell cycle such that nuclei move basally during G1-phase and apically during G2-phase. However, it is unknown how the direction of movement(More)
To fuse with oocytes, spermatozoa of eutherian mammals must pass through extracellular coats, the cumulus cell layer, and the zona pellucida (ZP). It is generally believed that the acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa, essential for zona penetration and fusion with oocytes, is triggered by sperm contact with the zona pellucida. Therefore, in most previous(More)
In order to characterize the energy expenditure of Paramecium, we simultaneously measured the oxygen consumption rate, using an optic fluorescence oxygen sensor, and the swimming speed, which was evaluated by the optical slice method. The standard metabolic rate (SMR, the rate of energy consumption exclusively for physiological activities other than(More)
Eggs of many marine and mammalian species attract sperm by releasing chemoattractants that modify the bending properties of flagella to redirect sperm paths toward the egg. This process, called chemotaxis, is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+). We used stroboscopic fluorescence imaging to measure intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in the flagella(More)
Speract, an egg-derived sperm-activating peptide, induces changes in intracellular Ca2+, Na+, pH, cAMP, cGMP, and membrane potential in sperm of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Ca2+ is a key regulator of motility in all sperm and, in many marine species, is required for generating turns interspersed with straighter swimming paths that are(More)
The larva of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis possesses only 36 striated muscle cells and lacks body segmentation. It can swim, however, like a vertebrate tadpole, and how its simple body achieves such sophisticated motor control remains puzzling. We found that muscle contractions in Ciona larvae are variable and can be changed by sensory(More)
Excited fluorophores produce reactive oxygen species that are toxic toward many live cells (phototoxicity) and accelerate bleaching of the fluorophores during the course of extended or repeated measurements (photobleaching). We recently developed an illumination system for fluorescence microscopy using a high power light-emitting diode (LED), which can emit(More)
Speract, a sperm-activating peptide (SAP) from sea urchin eggs, increases the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and modulates sperm motility. We measured the initial sperm response to speract using its caged analog and observed, for the first time, a small but significant decrease in sperm [Ca(2+)]i before the increase. Both directions of(More)