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OBJECT To enhance the surgeon's dexterity and maneuverability in the deep surgical field, the authors developed a master-slave microsurgical robotic system. This concept and the results of preliminary experiments are reported in this paper. METHODS The system has a master control unit, which conveys motion commands in six degrees of freedom (X, Y, and Z(More)
  • S Baba
  • 2000
Adrenalectomy for benign adrenal diseases is currently performed by transperitoneal laparoscopy. The transperitoneal approach, however, invades the intraperitoneal cavity, and may cause injury to the abdominal organs. The posterior lumbar approach allows direct access to the main adrenal vascular supply before the gland is manipulated. Retroperitoneoscopic(More)
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