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Outer surface protein A (OspA) from Borrelia burgdorferi has an unusual dumbbell-shaped structure in which two globular domains are connected with a "single-layer" beta-sheet (SLB). The protein is highly soluble, and it has been recalcitrant to crystallization. Only OspA complexes with Fab fragments have been successfully crystallized. OspA contains a large(More)
Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it is being transmitted to humans. Crystal structures of OspC have been determined for strains HB19 and B31 to 1.8 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The three-dimensional structure is predominantly helical. This is in contrast to the(More)
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) constitutes the sole gateway for bidirectional nucleocytoplasmic transport. We present the reconstitution and interdisciplinary analyses of the ~425-kilodalton inner ring complex (IRC), which forms the central transport channel and diffusion barrier of the NPC, revealing its interaction network and equimolar stoichiometry. The(More)
Fibronectin is an extracellular matrix protein with broad binding specificity to cell surface receptors, integrins. The tenth fibronectin type III domain (FNfn10) is a small, autonomous domain of fibronectin containing the RGE sequence that is directly involved in integrin binding. However, in isolation FNfn10 only weakly bind to integrins. We reasoned that(More)
Multidrug transporters belonging to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family expel dissimilar lipophilic and cationic drugs across cell membranes by dissipating a preexisting Na(+) or H(+) gradient. Despite its clinical relevance, the transport mechanism of MATE proteins remains poorly understood, largely owing to a lack of structural(More)
Intense efforts to detect, diagnose, and analyze the kinetic and structural properties of amyloid fibrils have generated a powerful toolkit of amyloid-specific molecular probes. Since its first description in 1959, the fluorescent dye Thioflavin-T (ThT) has become among the most widely used "gold standards" for selectively staining and identifying amyloid(More)
The capacity of dendritic cells to present protein antigens has been studied with two MHC class II-restricted, myoglobin-specific, T cell clones. Spleen dendritic cells and cultured epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) presented native myoglobin weakly and often not at all. These same populations were powerful stimulators of allogeneic T cells in the primary(More)
We have previously established a minimalist approach to antibody engineering by using a phage-displayed framework to support complementarity determining region (CDR) diversity restricted to a binary code of tyrosine and serine. Here, we systematically augmented the original binary library with additional levels of diversity and examined the effects. The(More)
The fibronectin type III domain (FN3) is a small autonomous folding unit which occurs in many animal proteins involving in ligand binding. The beta-sandwich structure of FN3 closely resembles that of immunoglobulin domains. We have prepared a phage display library of FN3 in which residues in two surface loops were randomized. We have selected mutant FN3s(More)
The tenth fibronectin type III domain of human fibronectin (FNfn10) is a small, monomeric beta-sandwich protein, similar to the immunoglobulins. We have developed small antibody mimics, 'monobodies', using FNfn10 as a scaffold. We initially altered two loops of FNfn10 that are structurally equivalent to two of the hypervariable loops of the immunoglobulin(More)