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Regulatory T cells engage in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance by actively suppressing self-reactive lymphocytes. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanism of their development. Here we show that Foxp3, which encodes a transcription factor that is genetically defective in an autoimmune and inflammatory syndrome in humans and(More)
CD4(+) T regulatory cells (T(regs)), which express the Foxp3 transcription factor, play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we show that in mice, T(regs) were most abundant in the colonic mucosa. The spore-forming component of indigenous intestinal microbiota, particularly clusters IV and XIVa of the genus Clostridium, promoted(More)
Interleukin (IL)-2 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of natural immunologic self-tolerance. Neutralization of circulating IL-2 by anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody for a limited period elicits autoimmune gastritis in BALB/c mice. Similar treatment of diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic mice triggers early onset of diabetes and produces a wide spectrum of T(More)
Naturally arising CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, most of which are produced by the normal thymus as a functionally mature T-cell subpopulation, play key roles in the maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance and negative control of a variety of physiological and pathological immune responses. Natural Tregs specifically express Foxp3, a transcription(More)
Gut commensal microbes shape the mucosal immune system by regulating the differentiation and expansion of several types of T cell. Clostridia, a dominant class of commensal microbe, can induce colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which(More)
The emerging notion of environment-induced reprogramming of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells into helper T (Th) cells remains controversial. By genetic fate mapping or adoptive transfers, we have identified a minor population of nonregulatory Foxp3(+) T cells exhibiting promiscuous and transient Foxp3 expression, which gave rise to Foxp3(-) ("exFoxp3") Th(More)
Naturally occurring CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells are engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and down-regulation of various immune responses. Recent studies with mice showed that Foxp3, which encodes the transcription factor Scurfin, is a master regulatory gene for the development and function of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Here(More)
The cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), converts naive T cells into regulatory T cells that prevent autoimmunity. However, in the presence of interleukin (IL)-6, TGF-beta1 has also been found to promote differentiation into IL-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells that are deeply involved in autoimmunity and inflammation. However, it has(More)
Natural regulatory T cells (T(reg)) represent a distinct lineage of T lymphocytes committed to suppressive functions, and expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 is thought to identify this lineage specifically. Here we report that, whereas the majority of natural CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells maintain stable Foxp3 expression after adoptive transfer to(More)
Most of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the gut is generated by B cells in the germinal centers of Peyer's patches through a process that requires the presence of CD4+ follicular B helper T(TFH) cells. The nature of these T(FH) cells in Peyer's patches has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that suppressive Foxp3+CD4+ T cells can differentiate into TFH cells(More)