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Targeted genome editing technologies have enabled a broad range of research and medical applications. The Cas9 nuclease from the microbial CRISPR-Cas system is targeted to specific genomic loci by a 20 nt guide sequence, which can tolerate certain mismatches to the DNA target and thereby promote undesired off-target mutagenesis. Here, we describe an(More)
The modification of DNA by 5-methylcytosine (5mC) has essential roles in cell differentiation and development through epigenetic gene regulation. 5mC can be converted to another modified base, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), by the tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (Tet) family of enzymes. Notably, the balance between 5hmC and 5mC in the genome is linked with(More)
Mammalian oocytes can reprogram somatic cells into a totipotent state enabling animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, the majority of SCNT embryos fail to develop to term due to undefined reprogramming defects. Here, we identify histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) of donor cell genome as a major barrier for efficient(More)
Cloning mammals by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is highly inefficient because of erroneous reprogramming of the donor genome. Reprogramming errors appear to arise randomly, but the nature of nonrandom, SCNT-specific errors remains elusive. We found that Xist, a noncoding RNA that inactivates one of the two X chromosomes in females, was(More)
Developmental gene expression is defined through cross-talk between the function of transcription factors and epigenetic status, including histone modification. Although several transcription factors play crucial roles in mammalian sex determination, how epigenetic regulation contributes to this process remains unknown. We observed male-to-female sex(More)
Quality evaluation of pluripotent stem cells using appropriate animal models needs to be improved for human regenerative medicine. Previously, we demonstrated that although the in vitro neural differentiating capacity of rabbit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be mitigated by improving their baseline level of pluripotency, i.e., by converting them(More)
Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are indistinguishable from ES cells in their expression of pluripotent markers, their differentiation into targeted cells is often limited. Here, we examined whether the limited capacity of iPS cells to differentiate into neural lineage cells could be mitigated by improving their base-line level of pluripotency,(More)
In mice, one of the major epigenetic errors associated with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is ectopic expression of Xist during the preimplantation period in both sexes. We found that this aberrant Xist expression could be impeded by deletion of Xist from the putative active X chromosome in donor cells. In male clones, it was also found that prior(More)
Paternal DNA demethylation in mammalian zygotes is achieved through Tet3-mediated iterative oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) coupled with replication-dependent dilution. Tet3-mediated paternal DNA demethylation is believed to play important roles in mouse development given that Tet3 heterozygous embryos derived from Tet3-deficient oocytes exhibit(More)
The great majority of embryos generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) display defined abnormal phenotypes after implantation, such as an increased likelihood of death and abnormal placentation. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of day 6.5 postimplantation mouse embryos cloned(More)