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The modification of DNA by 5-methylcytosine (5mC) has essential roles in cell differentiation and development through epigenetic gene regulation. 5mC can be converted to another modified base, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), by the tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (Tet) family of enzymes. Notably, the balance between 5hmC and 5mC in the genome is linked with(More)
Cloning mammals by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is highly inefficient because of erroneous reprogramming of the donor genome. Reprogramming errors appear to arise randomly, but the nature of nonrandom, SCNT-specific errors remains elusive. We found that Xist, a noncoding RNA that inactivates one of the two X chromosomes in females, was(More)
Animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provide a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of nuclear epigenetic reprogramming to a state of totipotency. Though many phenotypic abnormalities have been demonstrated in cloned animals, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide allelic(More)
Developmental gene expression is defined through cross-talk between the function of transcription factors and epigenetic status, including histone modification. Although several transcription factors play crucial roles in mammalian sex determination, how epigenetic regulation contributes to this process remains unknown. We observed male-to-female sex(More)
Quality evaluation of pluripotent stem cells using appropriate animal models needs to be improved for human regenerative medicine. Previously, we demonstrated that although the in vitro neural differentiating capacity of rabbit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be mitigated by improving their baseline level of pluripotency, i.e., by converting them(More)
Whereas cloning mammals by direct somatic cell nuclear transfer has been successful using a wide range of donor cell types, neurons from adult brain remain "unclonable" for unknown reasons. Here, using a combination of two epigenetic approaches, we examined whether neurons from adult mice could be cloned. First, we used a specific antibody to discover cell(More)
Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are indistinguishable from ES cells in their expression of pluripotent markers, their differentiation into targeted cells is often limited. Here, we examined whether the limited capacity of iPS cells to differentiate into neural lineage cells could be mitigated by improving their base-line level of pluripotency,(More)
In mice, one of the major epigenetic errors associated with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is ectopic expression of Xist during the preimplantation period in both sexes. We found that this aberrant Xist expression could be impeded by deletion of Xist from the putative active X chromosome in donor cells. In male clones, it was also found that prior(More)
The great majority of embryos generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) display defined abnormal phenotypes after implantation, such as an increased likelihood of death and abnormal placentation. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of day 6.5 postimplantation mouse embryos cloned(More)
Wild-derived mice have contributed to experimental mouse genetics by virtue of their genetic diversity, which may help increase the chance of identifying novel modifier genes responsible for specific phenotypes and diseases. However, gene targeting using wild-derived mice has been unsuccessful because of the unavailability of stable embryonic stem cells.(More)
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