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Diabetes is known to be one of the risk factors for dementia; however, neuropathic changes in the brain of patients with the disease have not been completely revealed. So in the present study, we investigated the brain function of rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ), one of the most commonly used animal models for diabetes. In the diabetic(More)
BACKGROUND There are few efficacious medications for drug dependence. We investigated the potential of Leu-Ile, which induces the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as a novel therapeutic agent for methamphetamine (METH)-induced dependence. METHODS The levels of GDNF and TNF-alpha(More)
The effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, TrkB, in neurons cultured from the cerebral cortex of 18-day-old embryonic rats were examined. BDNF mRNA was significantly increased from 24-48 hr after the TGF-beta1 treatment over 20 ng/ml. Accumulation of BDNF(More)
Expression of neurotrophins in pure microglia cultured from embryonic rat brain and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression were investigated. In untreated cultures, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin (NT)-4/5 mRNAs were detected by use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an important neurotrophic factor that has therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders. We previously showed that leucine-isoleucine (Leu-Ile), an analog of a dipeptide-like structure of FK506 (tacrolimus), induces GDNF expression both in vivo and in vitro. In this investigation, we sought to(More)
Depression-like behavior is often complicated by chronic pain. Antidepressants including imipramine (IMI) are widely used to treat chronic pain, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuromodulator that reduces depression by regulating synaptic transmission. We aimed to characterize the antidepressant(More)
Corticosterone (CORT), one of the glucocorticoids, causes neuronal damage in the hippocampus, but the mechanism(s) of action underlying its effects remains unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor that belongs to the neurotrophin family, affects the survival and/or differentiation of various types of neurons in vitro, and(More)
Maternal infection during pregnancy is an environmental risk factor for the development of severe brain disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia and autism. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying the association between prenatal exposure to infection and the emergence of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions in(More)
Neurogenesis is promoted by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Mash1, Math1, or NeuroD but suppressed by another set, Hes1 and Hes5. It remains unknown what kinds of extracellular signals are involved in their regulation; therefore, the effects of neurotrophins on the expression of bHLH factors and neuronal differentiation were investigated(More)