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The molecular mechanisms underlying polarized sorting of proteins in neurons are poorly understood. Here we report the identification of a 16 amino-acid, dileucine-containing motif that mediates dendritic targeting in a variety of neuronal cell types in slices of rat brain. This motif is present in the carboxy (C) termini of Shal-family K+ channels and is(More)
Genetic studies have linked many nonsyndromic deafness patients to mutations in genes coding for gap junction proteins. To better understand molecular identities of gap junctions in the cochlea, we investigated the expression of pannexins (Panxs). Western blot and reverse transcription-PCR detected the expression of Panx1 and Panx2. Immunolabeling localized(More)
The goal of sequencing the entire human genome for $1000 is almost in sight. However, the total costs including DNA sequencing, data management, and analysis to yield a clear data interpretation are unlikely to be lowered significantly any time soon to make studies on a population scale and daily clinical uses feasible. Alternatively, the targeted(More)
Mutations in connexins (Cxs), the constitutive protein subunits of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels, are one of the most common human genetic defects that cause severe prelingual non-syndromic hearing impairments. Many subtypes of Cxs (e.g., Cxs 26, 29, 30, 31, 43) and pannexins (Panxs) are expressed in the cochlea where they contribute to the(More)
Mutations in genes coding for connexin26 (Cx26) and/or Cx30 are linked to approximately half of all cases of human autosomal nonsyndromic prelingual deafness. Cx26 and Cx30 are the two major Cx isoforms found in the cochlea, and they coassemble to form hybrid (heteromeric and heterotypic) gap junctions (GJs). This molecular arrangement implies that(More)
Mutations in Gjb2 and Gjb6 genes, coding for connexin26 (Cx26) and Cx30 proteins, respectively, are linked to about half of all cases of human autosomal non-syndromic prelingual deafness. Molecular mechanisms of the hearing impairments, however, are unclear. Most cochlear gap junctions (GJs) are co-assembled from Cx26 and Cx30 and deletion of either one of(More)
Connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin30 (Cx30) are two major protein subunits that co-assemble to form gap junctions (GJs) in the cochlea. Mutations in either one of them are the major cause of non-syndromic prelingual deafness in humans. Because the mechanisms of cochlear pathogenesis caused by Cx mutations are unclear, we investigated effects of Cx30 null(More)
In the present investigation antimicrobial activity of six different plant essential oils i.e., citrus (Citrus lemon), olive (Olea europaea), ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), almond (Amygdalus communis), Bavchi (Psoralea corylifolia) and neem (Azadirachta indica) oils have been evaluated. After bioassays, most of the essential oils were found susceptible to(More)
Affinity maturation by random mutagenesis and selection is an established technique to make binding molecules more suitable for applications in biomedical research, diagnostics and therapy. Here we identified an unexpected novel mechanism of affinity increase upon in vitro evolution of a tubulin-specific designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin). Structural(More)
Touch MEdical MEdia " Pharmacologic or medical trabeculectomy " is a term first used in the 1970s. This describes a process by which the trabecular meshwork (TM) can be biochemically manipulated in order to reduce the outflow resistance and, thus, the intraocular pressure (IOP). The TM is now regarded as a complex organization of multiple components, which(More)