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The genetic effects of population bottlenecks have been well studied theoretically, in laboratory studies, and to some extent, in natural situations. The effects of serial population bottlenecks (SPBs), however, are less well understood. This is significant because recurrent population bottlenecks are likely to be a common feature of the life history of(More)
Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever is a fungal disease that occurs primarily in the southwestern United States. Of the estimated 150,000 U. S. coccidioidomycosis infections per year, approximately 60% occur in Arizona, making this state the focal point for investigation of the disease. In this manuscript, we describe the epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis(More)
The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in(More)
BACKGROUND On 12 February 2008, an infected Swiss traveler visited hospital A in Tucson, Arizona, and initiated a predominantly health care-associated measles outbreak involving 14 cases. We investigated risk factors that might have contributed to health care-associated transmission and assessed outbreak-associated hospital costs. METHODS Epidemiologic(More)
There is wide variation in endemic tuberculosis (TB) levels between countries and we seek to identify possible causes of these differences. In this study we present an epidemiological model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to investigate the effects of host genetics and demographic factors on epidemic TB. We discuss the general framework for this(More)
Coccidioidomycosis is endemic to the southwestern United States; 60% of nationally reported cases occur in Arizona. Although the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definition for coccidioidomycosis requires laboratory and clinical criteria, Arizona uses only laboratory criteria. To validate this case definition and characterize the(More)
An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Montevideo infections associated with multiple locations of restaurant chain A in Phoenix, AZ, was identified in July 2008. One infected individual reported eating at a chain A catered luncheon where others fell ill; we conducted a cohort study among attendees to identify the vehicle. Food and environmental samples(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of a minimum interval schedule for administering diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) in infants during a statewide pertussis outbreak on receipt of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using the state immunization(More)
Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in disease-endemic areas. Because testing rates influence interpretation of reportable-disease data and quality of CAP patient care, we determined the proportion of CAP patients who were tested for Coccidioides spp., identified testing predictors, and determined the proportion of(More)
Coccidioidomycosis presumably causes ≤ 33% of community-acquired pneumonias cases, although < 15% of the patients are tested for coccidioidomycosis. We assessed healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding coccidioidomycosis diagnosis and treatment in Arizona. A survey was mailed to 7,608 eligible healthcare providers licensed by the(More)