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Nicotine is mainly metabolized to cotinine by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6. Large interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism have been reported in humans. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the poor metabolism of nicotine and the existence of the CgammaP2A6v1 and CgammaP2A6v2 alleles, and a whole deletion allele of the(More)
CONTEXT Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis with neuronal differentiating activity, inhibits endothelial cell injury in vitro, thus suggesting the involvement of PEDF in atherosclerosis. Therefore, elucidating the relationship between serum levels of PEDF and coronary risk factors could provide a clue to(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Advanced glycation end products (AGE), senescent macroprotein derivatives formed at an accelerated rate in diabetes, play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Recently, AGE have also been found to be involved in insulin resistance. Although non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is generally considered a(More)
Vascular complications arising from multiple environmental and genetic factors are responsible for many of the disabilities and short life expectancy associated with diabetes mellitus. Here we provide the first direct in vivo evidence that interactions between advanced glycation end products (AGEs; nonenzymatically glycosylated protein derivatives formed(More)
Hypoxia is the principal factor that causes angiogenesis. These experiments were conducted to explore how it induces the proliferation of vascular cells, a key step in angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and bovine retinal pericytes were grown in controlled atmosphere culture chambers containing various concentrations of oxygen. The numbers(More)
Diabetic complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis. Chronic hyperglycemia is initially involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications via various metabolic derangements. High glucose increased production of various types of(More)
Cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons are widely used as a model system for studying neuronal apoptosis. After maturation by culturing in medium containing 26 mm potassium (high K(+)), changing to medium containing 5 mm potassium (low K(+); LK) rapidly induces neuronal apoptosis. Then over 50% of granule cells die within 24 h. However, the molecular(More)
Vascular endothelial cells (EC) exhibit organ-to-organ heterogeneity in their functions and morphologies. In particular, brain capillary EC have unique characteristics exemplified by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The formation and the maintenance of BBB have been ascribed to EC responses to inductive signal(s) or factor(s) from astrocytes that encircle(More)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of molecules, formed in vivo both by non-oxidative and oxidative reactions of sugars and their adducts to proteins and lipids. It is now well established that formation and accumulation of AGEs progress during normal aging, and at an extremely accelerated rate under diabetes, thus being(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play an important role in neuronal plasticity. In this study, we examined the effect of BDNF on an activity-dependent synaptic function in an acute phase. First, we found that short-term treatment (10 min) with BDNF enhanced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in cultured cortical neurons.(More)