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Autophagy is a highly-conserved cellular degradation and recycling system that is essential for cell survival during nutrient starvation. The loss of viability had been used as an initial screen to identify autophagy-defective (atg) mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the mechanism of cell death in these mutants has remained unclear. When(More)
In autophagy, a cup-shaped membrane called the isolation membrane is formed, expanded, and sealed to complete a double membrane-bound vesicle called the autophagosome that encapsulates cellular constituents to be transported to and degraded in the lysosome/vacuole. The formation of the autophagosome requires autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. Atg8 is a(More)
Assembly of the preautophagosomal structure (PAS) is essential for autophagy initiation in yeast. Starvation-induced dephosphorylation of Atg13 is required for the formation of the Atg1-Atg13-Atg17-Atg29-Atg31 complex (Atg1 complex), a prerequisite for PAS assembly. However, molecular details underlying these events have not been established. Here we(More)
The static dependency pair method is a method for proving the termination of higher-order rewrite systems à la Nipkow. It combines the dependency pair method introduced for first-order rewrite systems with the notion of strong computability introduced for typed λ-calculi. Argument filterings and usable rules are two important methods of the dependency pair(More)
During autophagosome formation, autophagosome-related (Atg) proteins are recruited hierarchically to organize the preautophagosomal structure (PAS). Atg13, which plays a central role in the initial step of PAS formation, consists of two structural regions, the N-terminal HORMA (from Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain and the C-terminal disordered region. The(More)
BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastric neoplasia via development of chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The effect of H. pylori eradication on pre-existing gastric neoplasias is still controversial. The aim of this study was to use long-term observation to clarify morphologic and histologic changes in gastric adenomas(More)
Autophagy-related degradation selective for mitochondria (mitophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved process that is thought to be critical for mitochondrial quality and quantity control. In budding yeast, autophagy-related protein 32 (Atg32) is inserted into the outer membrane of mitochondria with its N- and C-terminal domains exposed to the cytosol and(More)
Autophagosome formation in yeast entails starvation-induced assembly of the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS), in which multiple Atg1 complexes (composed of Atg1, Atg13, and the Atg17-Atg29-Atg31 subcomplex) are initially engaged. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the multimeric assembly of these complexes remain unclear. Using structural and(More)
Ammonia inhibition of methane fermentation is one of the leading causes of failure of anaerobic digestion reactors. In a batch anaerobic digestion reactor with 429 mM NH3-N/L of ammonia, the addition of 25 mM phosphate resulted in an increase in methane production rate. Similar results were obtained with the addition of disodium phosphate in continuous(More)
A photochemical reaction has been developed for the partial de-polymerization of sodium alginate, a polysaccharide utilized in medicine, pharmacy, basic sciences and foods. An aqueous solution of sodium alginate was photochemically depolymerized to approximately 40% of its average molecular weight using ultraviolet light in the presence of titanium dioxide(More)