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Mammals manifest circadian behaviour timed by an endogenous clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Considerable progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of the circadian clock, but the mechanisms by which it is translated into cyclic firing activity, high during the day and low at night, are still poorly understood. GABA(More)
Suprachiasmatic nuclei, derived from neonate rats, were maintained for several weeks in stationary organotypic culture. Hypothalamic slice explants, supported by Millicell filters and incubated in Petri dishes containing serum-based medium, flattened appreciably, yet preserved the organization of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the surrounding hypothalamic(More)
Pheromone detection by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is thought to rely on activation of specific receptors from the V1R and V2R gene families, but the central representation of pheromone receptor activation remains poorly understood. We generated transgenic mouse lines in which projections from multiple populations of VNO neurons, each expressing a distinct(More)
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are 2 peptides that are produced in the brain and released via the pituitary gland to the peripheral blood, where they have diverse physiological functions. In the last 2 decades it has become clear that these peptides also play a central role in the modulation of mammalian social behavior by their actions within(More)
1. We have shown previously that GABA, the main neurotransmitter in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), has dual effects on SCN neurones, excitatory during the day and inhibitory at night. This duality has been attributed to changes in [Cl(-)](i) during the circadian cycle. To unravel the processes underlying these changes we investigated the biophysical(More)
Most mammals rely on semiochemicals, such as pheromones, to mediate their social interactions. Recent studies found that semiochemicals are perceived by at least two distinct chemosensory systems: the main and accessory olfactory systems, which share many molecular, cellular, and anatomical features. Nevertheless, the division of labor between these systems(More)
Oxytocin is a nine amino acid neuropeptide that is known to play a critical role in fetal expulsion and breast-feeding, and has been recently implicated in mammalian social behavior. The actions of both central and peripheral oxytocin are mediated through the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), which is encoded by a single gene. In contrast to the highly conserved(More)
Although light is known to regulate the level of c-fos gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the site of an endogenous circadian clock, little is known about the identities of the photically activated cells. We used light-microscopic immunocytochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy to detect c-Fos protein in the SCN of Sabra mice exposed to(More)
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone, well known for its role in labor and suckling, and most recently for its involvement in mammalian social behavior. All central and peripheral actions of oxytocin are mediated through the oxytocin receptor, which is the product of a single gene. Transcription of the oxytocin receptor is subject to regulation by gonadal steroid(More)
Many mammals rely on pheromones for mediating social interactions. Recent studies indicate that both the main olfactory system (MOS) and accessory olfactory system (AOS) detect and process pheromonal stimuli, yet the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We hypothesized that the main functional distinction between the(More)